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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 554-559  

Study on Bhasma Kalpana with special reference to the preparation of Kasisa Bhasma

1 PhD Scholar, Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana including Drug Research, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Government Ayurveda College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication14-May-2012

Correspondence Address:
Dhirajsingh Sumersingh Rajput
S/O ASI Sumersingh Kesharsingh Rajput, Police Quarter, Sakharkherda, Taluka -Sindakhed Raja, Dist Buldhana 443 201, State -Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.96133

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Bhasma means ash but according to Ayurveda, Bhasma means conversion of a metal into a form which is irreversible in the sense that one cannot derive the metal back from it again (Apunarbhava). It should be so light so that it must float on the surface of water after sprinkling, called Varitara. Its particle should be so small that it can enter in to the creases of fingers called Rekha-purnatva. The preparative procedure of Bhasma is a bit complicated. Many texts are available regarding the identification, acceptable qualities of metals and minerals, their purification, uses and method of preparation of their Bhasma. But in many texts, the method of Bhasma preparation of some metals and minerals is mentioned very briefly, i.e. their references are available in Sutrarupa. This leads to many practical difficulties in the preparation of Bhasma. Kasisa Bhasma is one of them. The present work was aimed to study the basic concept of Bhasma Kalpana by means preparing Kasisa Bhasma. This study suggests some modifications and ways for standardization of Bhasma procedure.

Keywords: Bhasma , Kasisa Bhasma, Marana, stardard operative procedure

How to cite this article:
Rajput DS, Tekale G S. Study on Bhasma Kalpana with special reference to the preparation of Kasisa Bhasma. AYU 2011;32:554-9

How to cite this URL:
Rajput DS, Tekale G S. Study on Bhasma Kalpana with special reference to the preparation of Kasisa Bhasma. AYU [serial online] 2011 [cited 2023 Jun 5];32:554-9. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2011/32/4/554/96133

   Introduction Top

"Bhasma Kalpana0" is a special procedure of preparing Ayurvedic medicine from metals and minerals. It involves four basic steps such as selection of acceptable form of metal (Grahya Rasa Dravya), its purification by Ayurvedic method (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana) and generation (Maran or Puta). Out of these, the first three steps remain valid today, but the last step, i.e. Maran or Puta needs to be modified. Because the material mentioned for Maran, i.e. Puta and cow dung cakes, varies from place to place. The other drawback about Puta is that in the Rasa Grantha, only the size of pit and number of cow dung cakes for Puta are mentioned but the quantity of metal to be incinerated in the respective Puta is not described. Along with this, during the preparative method of many Bhasmas, it is observed that there is a need to slightly modify the concept of Puta to evaluate the preparative method of some Bhasma, and to accept some modern technological help. Therefore, Kasisa Bhasma was selected for study as the preparative procedure of Kasisa Bhasma is described very briefly in some of the most valuable Rasa Gransthas including Rasa Tarangini[1] Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya[3] and Ayurveda Prakasha. [6]

In the present study, emphasis has been given on the number and weight of cow dung cakes, respective temperature, quantity of Kasisa in each Sharava, the duration of constant maximum temperature and size and number of Sharava.

Aims and objectives

  1. To prepare Kasisa Bhasma.
  2. To find a direction for modification in the preparative procedure of Bhasma.
Place of study

Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Government Ayurveda College, Nanded.

   Materials and Methods Top

Selection of Grahya Kasisa

There are two types of Kasisa:

Valuka Kasisa is like sand, with greenish and slight yellowish color, while the Pushpa Kasisa is in small crystalline form with bright green color. According to the reference, the Pushpa Kasisa is of Grahya type and used for medicinal purpose. Hence, Pushpa Kasisa is selected to prepare Kasisa Bhasma. 1500 g of raw Pushpa Kasisa was purchased from Nagpur.

Purification of Kasia


Raw Pushpa Kasisa: 1500 g

Bhringaraja Swarasa: 8 l (Swaras was extracted from fresh Bhringaraja which was collected from Barad Herbarium of G.A.C., Nanded).


Purification of Kasisa was done by 3 hours Swedan in Bhringaraj Swarasa for 3 hours. Similar method is also described in Ayurveda Prakasha. [6] Its physical properties are as follows. Kasisa is partially soluble in water and the solubility increases with increase in temperature of water. At 80-90°C, Kasisa gets completely dissolved in water. Hence, after complete Swedana when Kasisapottali was removed, it was observed that Kasisa was completely dissolved in Bhringaraja Swarasa and only small quantity of sand remained in pottali. No reference is available about the method to obtain the dissolved Kasisa back into its crystalline form. This situation seems to be similar to the purification of Shilajita, therefore the methods of Suryatapi and Agnitapi Shilajit were considered and applied to the dissolved Kasisa. The dissolved Kasisa allowed to remain in the steel container for 24 hours. After this period, some Kasisa accumulated at the bottom, which was collected and allowed to dry in a steel tray under sunlight. Remaining Bhringaraja Swarasa was heated and vaporized to half of its level. Then, it was kept in separate steel tray and allowed to dry under sunlight. After 4 days, Kasisa in its crystalline form was obtained which measured about 1310 g, with 190 g loss.

Kasia Marana


Shodhita Kasisa
: 300 g in each batch (total four batches).

Bhavanadravya: Kanji 3l (for 1 st 7 Bhavana)


Out of total 1310 g of purified Kasisa, only 1200 g was taken to prepare Bhasma. For this purpose, reference from Rasa Tarangini[1] was selected. Firstly, seven times Bhavana to purified Kasisa with Kanji was done and small cakes of nearly 4-5 cm in diameter and 0.3-0.4 cm in thickness were prepared and allowed to dry. 150 g of dried cakes taken in each Sharava. Eight such Sharavas were prepared and careful Sandhibandhana was done. These Sharavas were divided into four groups to study the temperature variability occurring due to the use of cow dung cakes.

In Rasa Tarangini, Kukkutaputa is advised for Kasisa Bhasma. Size of Kukkutaputa should be equal to the size of cock, i.e. 35-45 cm in height and width, but the reference about the number of cow dung cakes is not available. In Yoga-Ratnakara, [8] during Suwarnmaran, only five cow dung cakes are used as Kukkutaputa. In Rasa Tarangini, Rasa Ratna Samuchchay and Ayurved Prakash, only the size of Kukkutaputa is given. The number of cow dung cakes, temperature of Puta, quantity of metal in Sharava and number of the Sharava are interrelated with each other. Therefore, on the basis of past experience, we knew that 20 cow dung cakes will give up to 650°C temperature and are sufficient to close two Sharavas from all sides.

All Sharavas must be closed by cow dung cakes to get equal temperature from all the sides. Hence, it was decided to give a Kukkutaputa of 20 cow dung cakes for two Sharavas containing 150 g Kasisa in each. Similar Puta were given to other three groups. Temperature was recorded continuously by pyrometer [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Preparation of Kasisa Bhasma

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According to the reference from Rasa Tarangini, after the first Puta, lavigation of Kasisa was done in Nimbu Swarasa (extract of Citrus acida) instead of Kanji. [4] Similar procedure was repeated again for three times for each group. After each Puta, the obtained Bhasma was tested for no sourness (Niramlatva) which is the main test for Kasisa Bhasma.

Bhasma Pariksha

After four puta for each group, completely sourless Kasisa Bhasma was obtained. The obtained Bhasma was tested for Varitara, Apunarbhava, Niruttha, Rekha-purnatva [Figure 2], Dantagre-kachkachabhav and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for the elemental assay of Fe in Kasisa Bhasma, X-Ray Difraction, total ash, acid-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, moisture content, organoleptic characters, water-insoluble and water-soluble ash.
Figure 2: Bhasma Pariksha

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   Results and Observations Top

From the above observations, it becomes clear that, though the number of cow dung cakes is constant, the temperature and duration of peak constant temperature will vary with variation in weight of the cow dungs taken.

   Discussion Top

In the present study, 1500 g raw Kasisa was taken for the preparation of Kasisa Bhasma, out of which 1200 g was taken after purification for the Marana procedure. For Kasisa purification, totally 8 l of fresh Bhringaraj swarasa was required for 3-hour Swedana in Dolayantra.

Kanji was prepared as per the reference mentioned in Rasendra Chintamani and seven times levigation was done for each batch separately. Then, Nimbu Swarasa was used instead of Kanji as mentioned in Rasa Tarangini. The cakes were prepared as uniform as possible in their size and shape, i.e. 4 - 5 cm in diameter and 0.3 - 0.4 cm in thickness. This is done to facilitate exact Paka (heating) and to observe the color changes in cakes. The size and shape of Sharava were also taken into consideration. All the Sharavas used were 19 cm in diameter, round shaped, and have a depth of 9 cm and average thickness 0.5 cm. As the Sharavas are low conductors of heat, their thickness affects the inner temperature in between Sharavsamputa. Similarly, the diameter of Sharava is related with the number of cow dung cakes and quantity of Bhasma. If the Sharava taken is big, then it requires more cow dung cakes to be completely closed from all the sides, and if the Sharava is small, it will not be able to accomodate all Chakrikas.

Detailed observations of each Puta was done for color changes in cakes, sourness of Kasisa, weight of Kasisa before and after Puta, number of required cow dung cakes and maximum temperature. The temperature was recorded by pyrometer. The duration of maximum constant temperature was also noted as it is the most important factor that affects the quality of Bhasma. If the maximum temperature remains constant for a long time, then the formed Bhasma will be Khara - paka (more heated). Typical pattern of temperature for Kukkuta Puta is shown in [Graph 1]. During Puta, it is found that when the weight of cow dung cakes is increased, then the maximum temperature and its duration also increases which is shown in I Puta of "B" batch and II Puta of "C" and "D" batch. Kasisa were tested for sourness. It was observed that batch "B" was sourless after III Puta, while the other batches were not. This may be due to the exact paka of Kasisa. The IV Puta was given to batch "B" in spite of sourless taste because it did not completely pass the other tests, i.e. Rekha-Purnatva and Dantagre-Kachkachabhav. After four Puta, all the batches passed all Bhasma Parikshas [Table 1].
Table 1: Detailed observation of Puta

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After 1 st Puta, while levigating with Nimbu Swarasa, Kasisa was sticked to Khalva Yantra, which resulted in 64.5% loss. [Table 2]. The obtained kasisa Bhasma of all four batches passes similar organoleptic characters i.e. colour, odour, luster, taste and touch [Table 3]. Apunarbhava and Niruttha are related with heat stability of the Bhasma. Same result was obtained in Apunarbhava test [Table 4] but in Niruttha test slight difference was observed in weight after incineration with silver which is due to sticky nature of kasisa Bhasma [Table 5]. Moisture content of Kasisa Bhasma was measured with the help of Metler-Toledo moisture analyzer. If the Bhasma contains more percentage of moisture, then it does not pass the Varitara Pariksha. The percent moisture content of batch A, B, C and D is 0.62, 0.68, 0.58 and 0.62 respectively, which shows no significant difference [Table 6]. In Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy nearly same percentages of ferrous was observed [Table 7]. The parameters were also produced no significant changes [Table 8].
Table 2: Loss of Kasisa during Bhasma preparation

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Table 3: Organoleptic characters of Kasisa Bhasma

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Table 4: Apunarbhava Pariksha of Kasisa Bhasma

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Table 5: Niruttha Pariksha of Kasisa Bhasma

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Table 6: Percent moisture content of Kasisa Bhasma

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Table 7: AAS for Fe of Kasisa Bhasma

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Table 8: Ash value of Kasisa Bhasma

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X-ray diffraction was done by using the standard data JCPDS - KDD. In this the relative intensities and their corresponding a < d values are to be tallied with standard values of compounds. In present study, Analysis of four batches of Kasisa Bhasma was done by powder crystal method, as shown in the results of XRD. Prepared Kasisa Bhasma may be having complex chemical structure. In XRD studies peaks of many compounds remain unidentified, only sharp peaks denotes crystalline structure. It requires further more studies [Graphs 2a to 2d].

This study has some limitations, e.g. the quality of cow dung cakes varies from place to place. The effect of Bhavana Dravya, trituration frequency, time and applied pressure for trituration are not mentioned in this study because it a separate topic for research. However, this study will help in the preparation of Kasisa Bhasma in detail and will give direction for standardization of Kasisa Bhasma.

   Conclusions Top

  1. The purification method of Kasisa mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya (5/54) is suitable for only artificially prepared Kasisa.
  2. The common purification method for both artificial and natural Kasisa is given in Rasa Tarangini (21/230) and Ayurveda Prakasha (2/275).
  3. Maximum temperature for 300 g Kasisa which was placed in two Sharava and incinerated by 3200 g cow dung cakes was 650°C, which remains constant for 3 minutes and four such Puta may be sufficient to produce sourless Kasisa Bhasma.
  4. Factors closely related with Puta procedure and that help in the modification of Puta are:
    1. quantity of material (Rasa Dravya);
    2. Bhavana Dravya;
    3. number and size of Sharava;
    4. weight of cow dung cakes;
    5. expected range of temperature; and
    6. duration of constant maximum temperature.
  5. Total weight of cow dung cakes, quality of cow dung cakes, time required to reach the maximum temperature and duration of constant maximum temperature can be considered as the parameters for Bhasma preparation.
  6. During Bhasma preparation, heating must be started from a temperature lower than the required temperature and is gradually increased after each Puta, which helps to create perfect Paka of Rasa Dravya.

   References Top

1.Sadananda Sharma, 'Rasatarangini' by Pandit Kashiram Shastri. Delhi-7: Motilal Banarasidas Prakashan; Reprint 2000, Adhyaya 22/255-258, p. 568.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Sadananda Sharma, 'Rasatarangini' Comment by Pandit Kashiram Shastri. Delhi-7: Motilal Banarasidas Prakashan; Reprint 2000, Adhyaya 22, line 4 th , p. 568.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Vagbhatacharya, 'Rasa-ratna-samuchchaya', with Hindi commentary by prof. D. A. Kulkarni, Vol. 1, New Delhi-2: Meharchand Lachhamandas Publications; Preprint, 1998. Adhyaya 3/52-55, p. 70.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Sadananda Sharma, 'Rasatarangini' by Pandit Kashiram Shastri. Delhi-7: Motilal Banarasidas Prakashan; Reprint 2000, 22/255-258, p. 568.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Vagbhatacharya, 'Rasa-ratna-samuchchaya', with Hindi commentary by prof. D. A. Kulkarni, Vol.1, New Delhi-2: Meharchand Lachhamandas Publications; Preprint, 1998. Adhyaya 10/47.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Acharya Madhav, 'Ayurveda Prakasha' by Shri. Gulraj Sharma Mishra. 4 th ed. Varanasi -1: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; 1994. Adhyaya 2/275, p. 325.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Gopalkrishna Bhatta, 'Rasendra-sara-sangraha with Savimarsha Rasavidyaotini', Hindi commentary by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi -1, 2 nd ed.1998. Adhyaya 1/223, p. 56.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.'Yogratnakara' with Hindi commentary by Vd. Lakshmipati Shastri, edited by Vd. Bramhashankar Shastri. 8 th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, 2004. Suvarna Maran Vidhi 4/5, p. 126  Back to cited text no. 8


  [Table 1], [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]

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