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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 406-410  

Comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical study on Bergenia ligulata Wall. and Ammania buccifera Linn

1 Ph.D. Scholar, Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurved, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Head, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurved, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
3 Head, Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurved, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication21-Feb-2014

Correspondence Address:
Switu Jani
Ph.D. Scholar, Pharmacognosy Laboratory, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-8520.127724

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"Pashanbheda0" is a controversial plant. Pharmacopeia considers Bergenia ligulata as official source of Pashanbheda and official substitute is Avera lanta. Review of the literature reveals that 23 different plants are reported in name of "Pashanbheda". Ammania buccifera is an adulterant, which is used in Kerala under the name of Pashanbheda, found in moist places of India. The present study was undertaken to compare the roots of both the plants and to have a brief view point on similarities and dissimilarities between the plants. The pharmacognostical evaluation reveals that the rosette crystals of B. ligulata are bigger in size compared to that of A. buccifera and cork is present in B. ligulata, whereas it is absent in A. buccifera. HPTLC shows similar Rf values of both the drug, The quantitative estimation showed that total phenol content of both the drug was almost equal.

Keywords: Ammania buccifera, Bergenia ligulata, Pashanbheda, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry

How to cite this article:
Jani S, Shukla VJ, Harisha C R. Comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical study on Bergenia ligulata Wall. and Ammania buccifera Linn. AYU 2013;34:406-10

How to cite this URL:
Jani S, Shukla VJ, Harisha C R. Comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical study on Bergenia ligulata Wall. and Ammania buccifera Linn. AYU [serial online] 2013 [cited 2023 May 30];34:406-10. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2013/34/4/406/127724

   Introduction Top

Bergenia ligulata is considered as official source of Pashanbheda and in Kerala Ammania buccifera is used under this name. [1] Plant is mostly found in water logging places throughout India. [2] The chemical constituents on B. ligulata and A. buccifera are well-established, [3],[4] but no pharmacognostical study has been reported till date. Therefore, the present study was aimed at comparing the pharmacognostical and phytochemical profile of A. buccifera roots with that of B. ligulata rhizome.

   Materials and Methods Top

Macroscopic evaluation

Macroscopic characters of both the rhizome and root were recorded as per visual observation. [5],[6]

Organoleptic evaluation

The color, odor and taste of both the rhizome and roots and the powder were recorded separately. [5],[6]

Microscopic evaluation

Free hand sections were taken, cleared with chloral hydrate and then with phloroglucinol and hydrochloric acid. Histochemical tests for constituents such as tannin, mucilage etc., was done. Microphotographs were taken by using Carl Zeiss binocular microscope attached with camera. [5],[6]

Phytochemical evaluation

Physical evaluation

In physical evaluation, moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash and extractive values viz., alcohol and water soluble extractive values were determined. The ash value represents the inorganic salts present in the drug [7],[8] [Table 1].
Table 1: Physiochemical parameters

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Preliminary phytochemical screening

The Methanol and water extractive was used to carry out the preliminary screening. The extract was further subjected for the presence of various constituents such as alkaloids, tannins, phenols and for Flavonoids. Quantitative estimations of total tannin content and total Phenol content [9] were done. High performance thin layer chromatography [10] was carried out for spectral comparison of both the samples [7],[8] [Table 2],[Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 2: Qualitative test

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Table 3: Quantitative test

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Table 4: High performance thin layer chromatography

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   Result and Discussion Top


A. buccifera

Is an herb belonging to the family Lythraceae and grows in water logging areas. Roots are dicot, externally spongy, leaves sessile, axillary inflorescence, flower sessile, red in color, fruit capsule globose. Roots arises at nodal region, spongy, whitish, measuring about 10-15 cm long, 0.3-0.5 cm in diameter, transversely cut surfaces shows outer spongy smooth in touch, no distinct odor, with astringent taste. [Plate no. 1]. [Additional file 1]

B. ligulata

It belongs to family Saxifragaceae. It is a perennial herb with thick rootstock. Leaves simple, orbicular to broadly obovate, fleshy, entire, strongly ciliate, inflorescence corymbose scapes, fruit Globose. Rhizome is solid, barrel shaped, cylindrical, 1.5-3 cm long and 1-2 cm in diameter. With ridges, furrows and root scars distinct, odor - aromatic, taste - astringent.

A. buccifera (root)

T.S. of A. buccifera root

Circular in shape, outermost layer epidermis somewhat barrel shaped epidermal cells loosely connected filled with yellowish brown coloring matter followed by loosely arranged spongy parenchyma with numerous air spaces between cells, i.e. aerenchyma. Parenchyma cells filled with numerous rosette crystals of calcium oxalate, starch grains and yellowish brown contents. Endodermis single layer slightly barrel shaped cells followed by a single layer pericycle. Vascular bundle radially arranged protoxylem toward center metaxylem toward the periphery each xylem pockets separated by biserrate-multiserrate medullary rays, phloem occupies above the xylem, xylem consists xylem parenchyma and few fibers [Plate no. 2]. [Additional file 2]

Powder microscopy

B. ligulata rhizome

Organoleptic characters: Odor aromatic, taste astringent, pinkish brown and coarse powder.

The diagnostics character of B. ligulata root powder shows cork cells in surface view, big rosette crystals and simple starch grain also in groups along with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in cortical zone, tannin contents in the epidermal region, fragments of parenchyma with tannin content, fibers and sclereid, fragments of pitted and annular vessels are observed from vascular bundle region [Plate no. 3]. [Additional file 3]

A. buccifera root

Organoleptic characters: No distinct odor, with astringent taste, blackish brown and coarse powder.

The diagnostics character of root powder shows rosette and prismatic crystals smaller in size compared to that of B. ligulata, lignified fibers, starch grains are seen in groups from cortex zone, lignified and beaded parenchyma from stellar region, pitted, spiral and annular vessels fragments are seen from the vascular bundle region [Plate no. 4]. [Additional file 4]

Comparative pharmacognostical study

Many similar and dissimilar characters were observed between powdered roots of B. ligulata and A. buccifera. The similar characters were rosette crystals, groups of starch grains are found in both the powders, moreover tannin content is found in both powders. The dissimilar characters were rosette crystals of B. ligulata is bigger in size compared to that of A. buccifera. Cork is present in B. ligulata, whereas it is absent in A. buccifera.

Phytochemical results

Comparison between track 1 and track 2 was done by spectral comparison on similar R f value found in the short and long UV radiations, the different R f values overlapping in both the samples are 0.04, 0.24, 0.35, 0.55, 0.94, 0.96. These graphs show the overlapping zones present in B. ligulata (rhizome) and A. buccifera (root) [Plate no. 5]. [Additional file 5]

   Discussion Top

Habit and habitat of both plants are similar in nature, both the roots are dicot, have simple leaves, pharmacognostical studies shows evidence of rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, which shows the maximum accumulation of calcium content in the plants, coloring matter and simple starch grains in groups are observed in both the plants. The Phytochemical evidence shows 60% similarity. Thus it can be concluded that A. buccifera may be used instead of B. ligulata. Further, studies require its genome analysis and noble compound investigations, isolation, pharmacological evidences.

   Conclusion Top

A. Buccifera used in place of B. ligulata regionally in many parts of India, morphologically shows similar identity as well as in habitat, pharmacognostical evidences shows that presence of rosette crystal, which play very significant role in identification. Phytochemical evidence shows 0.04, 0.24, 0.35, 0.55, 0.94, 0.96 R f values similarity with help of spectral comparisons, The quantitative estimation also shows that total phenol content is B. ligulata (rhizome) 4.03%, whereas, A. buccifera (root) 4.04%. This study is helpful in identification. It further requires scientific evaluation at molecular level, marker compounds and some more pharmacological evidence for establishment.

   Acknowledgments Top

The authors are thankful to the authorities of IPGT and RA and Gujarat Ayurved University for providing facilities to carry out the research work.

   References Top

1.Vaidya B. Some Controversial Drugs in Indian Medicine. 2 nd ed., Ch. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2005. p. 5.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Hooker JD. The Flora of British India. Vol. 2. Ashford, Kent: L. Reeve and Co. Bank Street; 1879. p. 388, 398.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Gopalakrishnan S. Research article on pharmacological evaluation of Ammania baccifera Linn. J Pharm Res 2010;3:1547-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Mazhar-ul-islam. Chemical studies on Ammania buccifera and bioactivity evaluation of B. ligulata. Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Trease, Evans. Pharmacognosy. 15 th ed. London: W.B. Saunders Company Ltd.; 1996. p. 15,474.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Wallis TE. Text Book of Pharmacognosy. 5 th ed. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2002. p. 571-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. Part-1, vol. 5, 1 st ed. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 2004. p. 412-35.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Ravishankar S. Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. Ootacamund: Rx Publication; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Atanassova M, Georgieva S, Ivancheva K. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity and biological contaminants in medicinal herbs. J Univ Che Tech Met, 2011;46:81-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Stahl E. Thin Layer Chromatography. London: Springer Publication; 2005 p.147..  Back to cited text no. 10


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

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