|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 430-432
Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria
Sayani Majumder1, BK Ashok2, K Nishteswar3
1 M. Pharma Scholar, Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Discovery Scientist, Research and Development, The Himalaya Healthcare, Makali, Bangalore, India
3 Professor and Head, Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
|Date of Web Publication||21-Feb-2014|
B K Ashok
Discovery Scientist, R and D, The Himalaya Healthcare, Makali, Bangalore - 5620 123
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is considered to be one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana. In folklore, the herb is well known for its laxative activity. This plant belongs to Convolvulaceae family. It is observed that the plants of this family especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins. The present experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time on Swiss albino mice and the test drugs were administered in dose of 400 mg/kg. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter. The results shows that both root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among which leaf sample is found to be better. Hence, for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant.
Keywords: Intestinal transit, Ipomea sepiaria, kaolin, Lakshmana, purgative
|How to cite this article:|
Majumder S, Ashok B K, Nishteswar K. Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria. AYU 2013;34:430-2
| Introduction|| |
Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is a medicinal plant considered as one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana.  This folklore herb is reported to be an antidote to arsenic and known for its uterine tonic, aphrodisiac, and anti-ulcer property.  It is also used as diuretic, aphrodisiac, tonic, used in useful in treatment of burning sensation, strangury, general debility, and sterility in women.  The literature further specified the use of root in case of diabetes  and constipation.  Basavarajeeyam (18 th Century)  has indicated its use in the management of leucorrhoea (fungal vaginal infection) with a name Gollajiddaku.  According to an ethno botanical survey carried out among the Malasar tribals in various tribal villages of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India in 2003, the whole plant was used as laxative.  Generally, it is observed that the majority of medicinal plants of Convolvulaceae family, especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins; these resin possess purgative or laxative properties.  This signifies that all plant parts of this plant including leaves possess some purgative or laxative activity. Further, if leaf bears similar activity profile to that of root, it will be helpful to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant. By taking into consideration of these points, the present pharmacological study was designed to evaluate a comparative purgative effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria in Swiss albino mice. It is well established that the drugs having purgative property are supposed to increase intestinal motility; hence, effect of test drug on intestinal transit time has been evaluated.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The whole plant of I. sepiaria was collected from the campus of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar after careful identification with the help of pharmacognosist of the institute. Further, a voucher specimen was prepared and sent to Botanical Survey of India, Office of the Scientist-'F', Central National Herbarium, Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal for further confirmation and the identity was confirmed (Specimen No.-CNH/104/2011/Tech.II/581). From the collected plants, leaves, and roots were separated, washed with water, cut into pieces, and dried under shade. The Churna (powder) was prepared from dried roots and leaves separately as per classical procedure  and passed through mesh sized 120 to get fine powder. Thus, prepared samples were coded as I. sepiaria root (ISR) and I. sepiaria leaves (ISL) respectively.
Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing between 28 ± 6 g were procured from the animal house attached to Pharmacology Laboratory, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat. They were housed in large spacious polypropylene cages and fed with Amrut brand rat pellet feed supplied by Pranav Agro Industries, Baroda, Gujarat and tap water given ad libitum. The animals were acclimatized for at least 1 week in lab condition before commencement of the experiment in standard laboratory conditions 12 ± 01 h day and night rhythm, maintained at 25 ± 3 o C and 40-60% humidity. Institutional Animal Ethics Committee had approved the experimental protocol (Approval number; IAEC/10/12/18) and the care of animals was taken as per the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experimental Animals (CPCSEA) guidelines.
The dose employed by Malasar tribals for laxative purpose is 3 g. Hence, for the present study the same dose was selected as therapeutic dose and the dose for the mice was calculated on the basis of body surface area ratio by referring the standard table of Paget and Barnes (1964).  On this basis the mouse dose was found to be 390 mg/kg and rounded to 400 mg/kg. The test drug was suspended in deionized water with suitable concentration depending up on body weight and administered orally with the help of oral catheter.
The selected animals were divided into three groups of six each comprising three male and three females. The first group served as control and deionized water was administered to it in requisite quantity. Second and third groups were administered with leaves and root powder of I. sepiaria at the dose of 400 mg/kg respectively. The test formulations and vehicle (deionized water) were administered to overnight fasted animals. The effect of the formulation on intestinal transit time was carried out based on previous study.  In short, 1 h after drug administration 40% Kaolin (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, United States) solution was administered to all the animals with the help of oral catheter. The animals were placed in a transparent arena and were carefully observed for the beginning of the Kaolin expulsion which begins in the form of white colored fecal pellets.
The data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). The significance of differences among the groups was assessed using Students unpaired t test as well as one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Dunnet's multiple t test. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Data related to effect of root and leaf of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time have been provided in [Table 1]. Both the drugs apparently shortened the intestinal transit time, however, the observed decrease in intestinal transit time in leaf administered group is found to be statistically significant.
|Table 1: Effect of root and leaf of Ipomoea sepiaria on intestinal transit time|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In the classical literature, it has been clearly mentioned that Virechana can act as a curative, preventive, and health promotive measure.  This may be brought about by subtle changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological activities at molecular level. There are three types of Virechana drugs  viz., Mridu Virechana drugs (which causes lesser degree of purgation, e.g. Trivrit [Operculina turpethum R.Br.]), Madhyama Virechana drugs (which causes moderate degree of purgation, e.g. Aragvadha [Cassia fistula Linn.]) and Tikshna Virechana drugs (drastic purgatives, e.g. Snuhi [Euphorbia nerifolia Linn.]). Among them Trivrit is most commonly used Virechana Dravya and it belongs to Convolvulaceae family.
To assess the action of test drug on the intestinal motility, latency of onset of Kaolin expulsion in fecal matter was selected as a parameter. As it was difficult to assess in vivo movement of the drug, it was thought useful to administer a marker, which causes color change of fecal matter and doesn't alter the effect of drug. In the present study, both root and leaf samples of test drug apparently shortened the duration required for the expulsion of Kaolin, however among them the observed effect in leaf sample administered group is found to be better. Further, both the drugs did not affect the consistency of the fecal matter. The observed shortening of duration required for the expulsion of Kaolin may be due to increased intestinal motility by local stimulant effect on motility or acceleration of gastric emptying.
| Conclusion|| |
Root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among them leaf sample is found to be better. Hence for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant.
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