|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 135-139
Simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone by high-performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight Sida species
MD Subramanya1, Sandeep R Pai2, Gireesh M Ankad3, Harsha V Hegde3, Subarna Roy3, SL Hoti3
1 Department of Dravyaguna, BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Mumbai, Maharastra, India
3 Herbal Medicine Division (BIC), ICMR – National Institute of Traditional Medicine, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||7-Nov-2017|
Gireesh M Ankad
Herbal Medicine Division (BIC), ICMR – National Institute of Traditional Medicine, Belagavi - 590010, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Introduction: Sida L. is a medicinally important genus widely used in conventional systems of medicine in India. Aim: The present study aims toward simultaneous determination of two bioactive compounds vasicine and vasicinone in root extracts of eight Sida spp. from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Determination of vasicine and vasicinone was undertaken in methanolic root extracts (10* w/v) of Sida acuta, Sida cordata, Sida cordifolia, Sida rhombifolia, Sida spinosa, Sida indica, Sida retusa and Sida mysorensis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The standards were prepared with the concentration of mg/mL. Data were expressed as mean values of three reading and relative standard deviations. The separation was achieved on a Waters, Nova-Pack, C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) column, with acetonitrile - 0.1 M phosphate buffer-glacial acetic acid (15: 85: 1, v/v/v) as solvent system at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. The effluent was monitored using ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 300 nm. Results: Both calibration curves of standard showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.994). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for vasicine was 0.110 and 0.333 μg/mL and for vasicinone was 0.059 and 0.179 μg/mL respectively. The vasicine content was highest in S. cordifolia (9.891 ± 0.495 μg/100 mg) and vasicinone content was rich in S. cordata (33.013 ± 1.651 μg/100 mg.) The content of vasicinone was higher than vasicine. Conclusion: HPLC method provides simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative analysis for simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone. Among the selected Sida species, S. cordifolia and S. cordata were found to be rich in the vasicine and vasicinone contents, respectively.
Keywords: High performance liquid chromatography, Sida spp, vasicine, vasicinone
|How to cite this article:|
Subramanya M D, Pai SR, Ankad GM, Hegde HV, Roy S, Hoti S L. Simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone by high-performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight Sida species. AYU 2016;37:135-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Subramanya M D, Pai SR, Ankad GM, Hegde HV, Roy S, Hoti S L. Simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone by high-performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight Sida species. AYU [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Aug 11];37:135-9. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2016/37/2/135/217791
| Introduction|| |
Genus Sida L. (Malvaceae) comprises of 200 species distributed throughout the world, out of which 17 species are confined to India. The plant is well documented in ancient Indian system of medicine “Ayurveda.” Bala is an important plant belonging to Karpasa kula, used as Rasayana to treat various ailments such as Vatavyadhi and Pradara. Even though species belonging to genus Sida are well known for their medicinal properties, especially in Ayurveda, the issue in their correct botanical identity persists. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu mentions four varieties of Bala (Balachatushtaya) while Dhanvantari Nighantu mentions five varieties (Panchabala). In general, as per the classics, Bala is Sida cordifolia L., Mahabala is correlated to two plants, namely, Kshetrabala (Sida rhombifolia L.) and Sahadevi (Vernonia cinerea L.). Similarly, the name Atibala is attributed to Abutilon indicum L. and Nagabala indicate three plants, i.e. Bhumibala (Sida veronicaefolia L.), Kantakinibala (Sida spinosa L.) and Gudasharkara (Grewia hirsuta Vanb.). Other classical references mentioned Rajabala or Bruhat Nagabala as Sida acuta Burm. F. There are different of opinion regarding botanical identities of Bala, which are still controversial.
It is known for various pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-arthritic, gonorrheal, end also as an immune enhancer. Several Sida species have been investigated for their phytochemical constituents and have reported many compounds using various analytical techniques.,,,, The previous study suggested, that Sida species contain polyphenols and possess antioxidant activity. Reports suggested high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) estimation of ephedrine, a major active principle from Sida spp., optimization and validation of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPTLC method for quantification of vasicine (IUPAC name: [3R]-1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-3-ol; Mol. Formula: C11H12N2O; Mol. Wt.: 188.226) and vasicinone (IUPAC name: 3S-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-9-one; Mol. Formula: C11H10N2O2; Mol. Wt.: 202.209) two other major compounds reported in roots of two Sida species (viz. S. cordifolia and S. acuta). Vasicine is a light sensitive compound and when exposed to light, it is auto-oxidized to vasicinone., Both vasicine and vasicinone are chief alkaloids known to possess interesting biological activities.,, Vasicine and vasicinone are quinazoline alkaloids known to possess bronchodilatory activity; the first was reported to be more potent and also showed anti asthmatic activity.,
Hence, the present study aims at quantifying vasicine and vasicinone and also to identify the highest yielding species from roots of 8 Sida species (viz. S. acuta Burm. F., S. cordata Boiss., S. cordifolia L., S. rhombifolia L., S. spinosa L., S. indica L., S. retusa L., and S. mysorensis Wt. and Arn.) collected from Western Ghats, India.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Eight selected Sida species were collected from Belagavi region of Western Ghats, India during September, 2013. Plants were identified, authenticated, and voucher specimens were deposited at ICMR - NITM, Belagavi (KA), India for future reference (S. cordata Boiss., S. spinosa L., S. rhombifolia L., S. acuta Burm. F., S. cordifolia L., S. indica L., S. mysorensis Wt. and Arn., S. retusa L.; Voch. Nos.: RMRC 475, 477, 479, 484, 938, 939, 970, and 971, respectively). All the solvents viz. methanol, water, acetonitrile, and glacial acetic acid were of HPLC grade (Fischer Scientific, Mumbai, India). Vasicine (>95% pure) and vasicinone (>95% pure) were procured from, Natural Remedies, Bengaluru, India.
Roots of the eight species were washed, dried, ground to fine powder, and was stored in air tight containers until further use. Continuous shaking extraction was performed on an orbital shaker (Orbitek, India) by subjecting 10 g of dried plant materials in 100 mL of methanol in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask at 150 rpm, overnight at ambient temperature. Samples were filtered through Whatman filter paper no. 1, to obtain a residue. The filtrate was passed through 0.45 μ nylon filters before analysis to remove impurities from the extract and to avoid damaging the column. The extracts were diluted to 10% (w/v) for HPLC analysis.
A previously described solvent system was employed during the present study. The separation was achieved on a Waters, Nova-Pack, C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) column, with acetonitrile - 0.1 M phosphate buffer-glacial acetic acid (15:85: 1, v/v/v) (pH 4.0 by phosphoric acid) as solvent system at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. The effluent was monitored using ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 300 nm. The mobile phase was filtered through 0.45 μm nylon filter before use.
Standard stock solution of vasicine and vasicinone (5 mL) were prepared with the concentration of mg/mL. The concentrations of both the standards were made from 0.1 to 40 μg/mL with 7 point calibration. The system suitability test was assessed by triplicate injections of the standard solutions at a particular concentration. The peak areas were used to evaluate repeatability of the proposed method, and their peaks were analyzed for resolution.
Data were expressed as mean values of three reading and relative standard deviations. The statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software.
| Results|| |
Vasicine and vasicinone were determined quantitatively using HPLC analysis in roots of eight, Sida species from Western Ghats, India. The identification of these compounds in extracts was achieved by comparing retention time of authentic standards. Chromatograms of 2 standards and comparative report of representative samples are depicted in [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]. The method of extraction and HPLC conditions were unchanged throughout the study.
|Figure 1: Simultaneous detection of Vasicine and Vasicinone standards (100 μg/mL)|
Click here to view
Different concentrations of vasicine and vasicinone were detected at 300 nm using HPLC system. Profiles with retention times of 3.722 ± 0.318 (vasicine) min and 6.272 ± 0.265 min (vasicinone) were obtained as the output of standard injection by HPLC analysis. Seven point calibration curves of both the standards within the concentration range of 0.1– 40 μg/mL were constructed with the coefficient of determination (R2) above 0.994. The regression equation showed a significant relationship between peak areas and concentrations and this equation was used to estimate content from samples. The results of the regression equations were y = 17449x + 24238 (vasicine) and y = 19946x + 11986 (vasicinone), a linear relationship between peak area and concentration was established. Limit of detection and limit of quantification as determined by signal to noise ratio for vasicine was 0.110 and 0.333 μg/mL and for vasicinone was 0.059 and 0.179 μg/mL, respectively.
The contents (μg/100 mg) were calculated using standard calibration curves [Table 1]. Simultaneous determination of both the standards from roots of eight Sida spp. varied from 3.194 ± 0.160–9.891 ± 0.495 μg/100 mg (vasicine), and 02.328 ± 0.116–33.013 ± 1.651 μg/100 mg (vasicinone).
|Table 1: Content of vasicine and vasicione as determined by high performance liquid chromatography in roots of eight species of Sida|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The highest vasicine content was determined in S. cordifolia and vasicinone in S. cordata. It was also interesting to note that the retention times for detection of both the compounds were less than the earlier reports. The results were in accordance with the earlier reports of S. acuta and S. cordifolia using HPLC analysis, wherein it has been reported the similar content of vasicine (10.00 μg/100 mg) in S. cordifolia and vasicinone (2.30 μg/100 mg) in S. acuta. However, the content of vasicinone in S. cordifolia (6.00 μg/100 mg) was lower and vasicine in S. acuta (8.00 μg/100 mg) was higher than the present study [Table 1]. It is well evident from the earlier studies on medicinal plants that the variation in chemical makeup may be attributed to change in the area of collection and climatic factor.,, Furthermore, it is evident that vasicine and vasicinone are the chief marker compounds of Adhatoda vasica (Syn. Adhatoda zeylanica). Vasicine and vasicinone content as determined in methanolic extracts of A. vasica leaves were 0.1200% and 0.0340%, respectively. However the content of vasicine in Sida spp. during the present study was lower than that reported earlier in A. vasica and vasicinone content in S. cordata [Table 1] was almost equal to that mentioned by Srivastava et al. in A. vasica.
| Conclusion|| |
Conclusively, HPLC method provides simple and reproducible quantitative analysis for simultaneous determination of vasicine and vasicinone. Vasicinone was available in higher amount as compared to vasicine in Sida species. S. cordifolia and S. cordata were the species with a higher amount of vasicine and vasicinone, respectively. The study helps to select the plant species with higher content of these compounds required for its maximum therapeutic potential.
The authors are indebted to Director-in-Charge, ICMR, Belagavi for providing lab facility and support, Mr. Bhoopal Talawar, MTS (Technical) and Mr. Jotiba Palekar, Lab attendant (BIC Project) ICMR-NITM, Belagavi for their assistance in collection and processing plant material.
Financial support and sponsorship
Drugs have been collected from wild source, the lab facility was utilized from ICMR-NITM, Belagavi.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Sivarajan VV, Pradeep KA. Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph. New Delhi: Daya Publishing House; 1996. p. 12.
Sharma PV. Dravyaguna Vijnana. Vol. 2, Reprint ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharathi Academy; 2005. p. 734-38.
Trikamji Y, editor. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Chikitsa Sthana. 4th
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1980. p. 499.
Trikamji Y, editor. CharakaSamhita of Agnivesha, Chikitsa Sthana. 1st
ed Ch. 28, Ver. 148, Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashan; 2001. p. 623.
Tripati I, editor. Chakradatta with Vaidayaprabha, Chakrapanidatta. 5th
ed. Ch. 61, Ver. 9, Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhawan; 1983. p. 504.
Mishra B, Vaisya R, editors. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra, Guduchyadi Varga. 11th
ed., Vol 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhawan; 2004. p. 366-68.
Sharma PV, Sharma G, editors. Dhanvantari Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Ver. 121, 2nd
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p. 66.
Mishra B, Vaisya R, editors. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra. Guduchyadi Varga. 11th
ed., Vol. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhavan; 2004. p. 366-72.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1, 2nd
ed. Dehradun: International Book Distributors; 1999. p. 305-18.
Vaidya B. Some Controversial Drugs in Indian Medicine, 1st
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1982. p. 213-18.
Levekar GS, Kailash C, Yelne MB, Dhar BP, Joseph GV, Mangal AK, et al
. Database of Medicinal Plants. Vol 8. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Govt. of India; 2007. pp. 42-50.
Dhalwal K, Shinde VM, Mahadik KR. Optimization and validation of reverse phase HPLC and HPTLC method for simultaneous quantification of Vasicine and Vasicinone in Sida
Species. J Med Plant Res 2010;4:1289-96.
Chaves OS, Gomes RA, Tomaz AC, Fernandes MG, das Graças Mendes L Jr., de Fátima Agra M, et al.
Secondary metabolites from Sida rhombifolia
) and the vasorelaxant activity of cryptolepinone. Molecules 2013;18:2769-77.
Sutradhar RK, Rahman AK, Ahmad MU, Saha K. Alkaloids of Sida cordifilia
L. Indian J Chem 2007;46:1896-900.
Chena C, Chaob L, Panc M, Liaob Y, Chang C. Tocopherols and triterpenoids from Sida acuta
. J Chin Chem Soc 2007;54:41-45.
Prakash A, Varma RK, Ghosal S. Alkaloid constituents of Sida acuta
, S. humilis
, S. rhombifolia
and S. spinosa
. Planta Med 1981;43:384-88.
Subramanya MD, Pai SR, Upadhya V, Ankad GM, Bhagwat SS, Hegde HV. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro
antioxidant properties of eight Sida
species from Western Ghats, India. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2015;6:24-28.
] [Full text]
Khatoon S, Srivastava M, Rawat AK, Mehrotra S. HPTLC method for chemical standardization of Sida
species and estimation of the alkaloid ephedrine. J Plan Chromatogr 2005;18:364-67.
Brain KR, Thapa BB. HPLC determination of Vasicine and Vasicinone in A. vasica
Nees. J Chromatogr1983;258:183-88.
Chowdhuri BK, Hirani SK. HPLC study of the photochemical oxidation of Vasicine and its analogues. J Chromatogr 1987;390:439-43.
Gupta OP, Sharma ML, Ghattak BJ, Atal CK. Pharmacology investigation of Vasicine and Vasicinone - The alkaloids of A. vasica
. Indian J Med Res 1977;66:680-91.
Chopra RN, Ghosh S. Preliminary note on the pharmacological and therapeutics of A. vasica
(Basak). Ind Med Gaz 1925;60:354-55.
Bhide MB, Naik PY, Ghooi RB. Comparative studies on the pharmacological evaluation of Vasicine and Vasicinone. Bull Haffkine 1976;4:43-50.
Patil S, Ojha R, Kaur G, Nepali K, Aggarwal S. Estimation of seasonal variation of two major pyrrolo [2, 1-b] quinazoline alkaloids of Adhatoda vasica
by HPLC. Nat Prod J 2013;3:30-34.
Nepali K, Sharma S, Ojha R, Dhar KL. Vasicine and structurally related quinazolines. Med Chem Res 2013;22:1-15.
Pai SR, Nimbalkar MS, Pawar NV, Patil RP, Dixit GB. Seasonal discrepancy in phenolic content and antioxidant properties from bark of Nothapodytes nimmoniana
(Grah.) Mabb. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2010;1:1-17.
Pai SR, Pawar NV, Nimbalkar MS, Kshirsagar PR, Kolar FK, Dixit GB. Seasonal variation in content of camptothecin from the bark of Nothapodytes nimmoniana
(Grah.) Mabb. using HPLC analysis. Pharmacognosy Res 2013;5:219-23.
Pawar NV, Pai SR, Nimbalkar MS, Dixit GB. RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic antioxidant compound 6-gingerol from different ginger cultivars. Food Chem 2011;126:1330-36.
Dash RP, Chauhan BF, Anandjiwala S, Nivsarkar M. Comparative pharmacokinetics profile of Vasa Swaras with Vasicine and Vasicinone. Chromatographia 2010;71:609-15.
Srivastava S, Verma RK, Gupta MM, Singh SC, Kumar S. HPLC determination of Vasicine and Vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica
with photo diode array detection. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 2001;24:153-59.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]