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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 40  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 152-158

An evaluation of the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. (Kalonji) on the clinical parameters of moderate-to-severe gingivitis: A split-mouth clinical study

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, King George's Medical College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Phytochemistry Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Umesh Pratap Verma
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, King George's Medical College, Lucknow-226003, Uttar Pradesh,
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ayu.AYU_68_18

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Introduction: Gingivitis is a relatively innocuous and reversible inflammation of gingiva. If left untreated, it might progress involving the deeper supporting periodontal tissues of the tooth with consequent mobility and tooth loss. Compelling literature has suggested the role of local antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (gold standard) for treating periodontal diseases. Various herbs such as Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), Babbula (Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H. Hurter & Mabb.) and turmeric (Curcuma long a L.) have been used for gingivitis since ancient times. Nigella sativa L. (Kalonji) is one such herb known for its remarkable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and thus has been utilized in the present study. Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the clinical efficacy of different ethanolic solutions of N. sativa in moderate-to-severe gingivitis patients. Materials and Methods: It is a split-mouth clinical study with 24 patients of moderate-to-severe gingivitis from the age group of 25–45 years. Recruited individuals were divided in to group I1, group II1and group III1 (scaling and root planning i.e., control) and group I2, group II2and group III2 (experimental). Three doses of solution 1 (1:3), solution 2 (1:1) and solution 3 (3:1) were administered to the experimental groups for 3 consecutive days. The clinical parameters, i.e., gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded at baseline, 14 days and 28 days in all the individuals. ANOVA test was used in the study for statistical analysis. Results: Intergroup comparison in terms of GI showed statistically significant difference at 14th and 28th day from baseline between I1 &I2,at only 28th day between II1 & II2and insignificant difference between III1 & III2 at all time intervals from baseline. On intragroup comparison, statistically significant reduction in GI in all groups from baseline till 28 days was found, but among experimental groups best result was seen in group III2(P < 0.001; F value 153.75). As far as PI is concerned, intergroup comparison between different groups displayed statistically significant difference from baseline to 14th and 28th day between all groups i.e I1& I2, II1& II2and III1& III2. On intragroup comparison, statistically significant reduction in PI in all control groups i.e I1, II1 & III1was found, but among experimental groups only group III2 provided statistically significant reduction (P < 0.001, F value 30.40). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that, the ethanolic extract of N. sativa is effective in the treatment of moderate to severe gingivitis.

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