|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 159-163
Evaluation of effect of poultice (Upanaha Sweda) in low back pain (Katigraha): A randomized comparative clinical trial
Tarun Kumar, Rajashekhar V Sanapeti, BS Prasad
Department of Panchakarma, KLEU's Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||24-Apr-2018|
|Date of Decision||26-Jun-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||21-Aug-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||08-Aug-2020|
Dr. Tarun Kumar
Department of Panchakarma, KLEU's Shri BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Shahapur, Belagavi - 590 003, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Katigraha (low back pain) is a condition where low back is afflicted either with Vata or Sama Vata (Vata involved with the toxins released due to altered digestion and metabolism) and present with symptoms such as pain with stiffness. About 60%–80% population in India suffer from this condition. Upanaha Sweda (poultice) is one of the Swedana (sudation) treatment modalities mentioned for Katigraha. As Sama (affected with toxins released from impaired digestion) and Nirama (without toxins) are two stages of Katigraha, hence, the specific type of Upanaha is required for such condition. Aims and Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Upanaha Sweda in Katigraha (low back pain) as per the presentation of stages of Ama. Materials and Methods: Selected patients were categorized into two groups. In group A, patients having Samaja Katigraha, were given Panchakoladi Upanaha once a day till it became Niramaja, then shifted to Godhumadi Upanaha for 7 days and patients who had Niramaja Katigraha, Godhumadi Upanaha was used once a day for 7 days. In group B Godhumadi Upanaha was used once a day for 7 days irrespective of stages. Subjective parameters assessed were pain in the low back, stiffness, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was also used. The Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess results. Results: Patients who were treated considering the Sama and Nirama phases had 78.88% better results in relieving pain, stiffness, and in ODI change than the patients treated without considering the phases. Conclusion: The present study showed significant results in both the groups, but patients treated as per stage wise treatment showed better effect in treating Katigraha than the patients treated with out considering the stage.
Keywords: Katigraha, low back pain, Swedana, Upanaha
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar T, Sanapeti RV, Prasad B S. Evaluation of effect of poultice (Upanaha Sweda) in low back pain (Katigraha): A randomized comparative clinical trial. AYU 2019;40:159-63
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar T, Sanapeti RV, Prasad B S. Evaluation of effect of poultice (Upanaha Sweda) in low back pain (Katigraha): A randomized comparative clinical trial. AYU [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Jan 31];40:159-63. Available from: https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2019/40/3/159/291635
| Introduction|| |
Vata Dosha or Sama Vata Dosha (Vata Dosha associated with Aama [the toxins released due to altered digestion and metabolism] when afflicts Kati Pradesha (low back) and produce the symptoms such as pain with stiffness, then the condition is known as Katigraha.
This can be correlated with low back pain. It is the most common disorder which is characterized by dull or sharp pain and may also associated with stiffness. About 60%–80% of the general population in India suffer from low back pain during their life time due to several stressful factors seen in their professional or social life and also due to wrong postural habits. It affects both men and women alike and common in the age group of 20–60 years.
Upanaha Sweda (poultice) is one of the Swedana (sudation) treatment modalities mentioned for Katigraha.,,,,The selection of drugs varies according to the stages of the disease. As there are two stages mentioned in Katigraha that is Samaja (with Ama) and Niramaja (without Ama), specific type of Upanaha is required for each stage, but generally only one type of Upanaha is being applied for both the conditions irrespective of stages, due to which its efficacy might get reduced. Panchakoladi Upanaha consists of Chavya (Piper retrofractum Vahl.), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.), Pippalimula (Piper longum Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Shunthi (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), Yava (Hordeum vulgare Linn.)and Nirgundi (Vitex negundo Linn.) that are helpful in resolving of toxins released due to impaired digestion and Godhumadi Upanaha consists of Godhuma (Triticum sativum Linn.), Tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.), Erandamula (Ricinus communis Linn.) that are helpful in treating Vata condition. Hence, study has been carried out to evaluate the effect of Upanaha Sweda in as per the stage of Katigraha (low back pain).
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was registered under the Clinical Trials Registry – India (CTRI/2017/04/008417) and ethical clearance had been obtained (BMK/13/PG/PK/05). Informed consent was taken before starting the trial in each subject. Forty-one patients of Katigraha fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled irrespective of sex, religion, etc. Five patients dropped out due to personal reasons and 36 patients completed the study as mentioned in [Table 1]. Selected patients were first openly categorized into two groups: Samaja Katigraha and Niramaja Katigraha. Then, these patients were again categorized into two groups according to the computer-generated randomization chart. In group A (Avasthanusara [stage wise] treatment), patients presenting with Samaja Katigraha, Panchakoladi Upanaha was given once a day till the Nirama symptoms appeared and then Godhumadi Upanaha was used once a day for 7 days and the patients presenting with Niramaja Katigraha, Godhumadi Upanaha was used once a day for 7 days. Whereas in group B (Anavasthanusara [without considering stages] treatment), Godhumadi Upanaha was used for 7 days irrespective of stages.
- Pain at low back
- Stiffness at low back
- Sama symptoms, i.e., heaviness in the body, anorexia, poor digestion, excessive salivation and laziness.
- Nirama symptoms, not having either of heaviness in the body, anorexia, poor digestion, excessive salivation and laziness.
- Patients presenting with classical symptoms of Katigraha such as pain and stiffness at low back.
- The patients who are fit for Swedana (sudation)
- The age group between 20 and 60 years of either sex.
- Low back pain resulting from osteoporotic fractures, infections, neoplasm, other mechanical derangements
- Patient associated with any other systemic disorders
- Patients with a history of trauma
- Known case of skin allergy and open wound
- Post surgical backache.
Ingredients of Upanaha 1 and Upanaha 2
Ingredients of Upanaha 1 (Panchakoladi Upanaha) and Upanaha 2 (Godhumadi Upanaha) are mentioned in [Table 2].
Preparation and application of Upanaha
Materials required for preparation of Upanaha
Tila Taila (sesame oil) 10 ml for local massage, Saindhava Lavana (rock salt) - 30 g, cotton bandage - 6 inches (2 pieces), Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) leaves - (4–5), heating apparatus, pan, table spoon, bowl, thermometer and massage table.
Preparation of paste
All the medicinal powder mentioned in [Table 2] were taken in a pan as per the group. Then, 200 ml Dhanyamla (fermented gruel) and 200 ml cow milk was added to Panchakoladi Upanaha and Godhumadi Upanaha respectively and mixed well. Then, 30 g Saindhava Lavana (rock salt) and Tila Taila (sesame oil) as per need were added to it for the poulitce and mixed well to make its consistency like dough.
The patient was instructed to lie in the prone position on the massage table. Low back was exposed and the skin sensitivity was checked for temperature or any allergy. Local massage was done with Tila Taila (sesame oil) for 5 min. The prepared paste was then pasted over the low back uniformly of about 5 mm thickness. It was covered with proper-shaped Eranda leaves. Then, it was tied with a cotton bandage for 6 h (360 min).
Post operative procedure
After removal of Upanaha (poultice), gentle massage was done and the part was cleaned well with lukewarm water and the patient was asked to move the joint slowly.
Upanaha Dharana Kala (duration of Upanaha retention)
Panchakoladi Upanaha- 6 h/day till Niramaja symptoms like reduction in the stiffness and feeling of lightness at low back and activeness in the body appears parameters:
Godhumadi Upanaha- 6 h/day for 7 days.
Patients were assessed before and after the treatment on the basis of following parameters:
Assessment of subjective criteria
The assessment criteria for pain and stiffness are given in [Table 3] and [Table 4], respectively.
Visual Analog Scale: (for assessment of pain in grade 0 to 10).
Oswestry disability index total score
Pain, stiffness and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) changes were assessed on comparing their values after applying Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
[Table 5] shows that out of 36 cases of Katigraha, 41–60 years (69.44%) of age group people were found more affected than 20–30 years (11.11%) and 31–40 years (19.44%); [Table 6] shows that males (52.78%) were found more affected with low backache than females (47.22%); [Table 7] shows that farmers and labourers (27.78%) and homemakers (33.33) were more prone to low backache than private job workers (16.67%), teachers (13.88%), policeman (2.78%) and tailors (5.56%); [Table 8] shows that prolong standing posture (38.89) persons are more prone to low backache than prolong sitting postures (30.56%) and continuous travellers (8.33%).
| Results|| |
Results of the treatment in both the groups are mentioned in [Table 9] and [Table 10].
[Table 9] shows that 18 patients of Katigraha when treated according to Avastha (stages) showed 43.33% effect with P < 0.0001 in relieving pain, 36.07% effect with P = 0.0002 in reducing stiffness, and 37.25% effect with P < 0.0001 in improving ODI index and another 18 patients of Katigraha when treated without assessing the Avastha (stages) showed 27.20% effect with P < 0.0001 in relieving pain, 15.73% effect with P = 0.0204 in reducing stiffness, and 18.44% effect with P < 0.0001 in improving of ODI index.
[Table 9] also shows that there was a significant difference between the two groups with P = 0.0107 in relieving pain, with P = 0.0351 in reducing stiffness and with P = 0.0002 in improving of ODI index.
[Table 10] shows that 9 patients of Samaja Katigraha when treated according to Avastha (stages) had 50.96% effect with P < 0.0001 in relieving pain, 55.5% effect with P < 0.0001 in reducing stiffness, and 40.40% effect with P < 0.0001 in improving ODI index and another 9 patients of Samaja Katigraha when treated without assessing the Avastha (stages) showed 21.41% effect with P = 0.0278 in relieving pain, 11% effect with P = 0.1690 in reducing stiffness, and 16.16% effect with P = 0.0058 in improving of ODI index.
[Table 10] also shows that there was a significant difference between the results in Samaja Katigraha of the two groups with P = 0.0016 in relieving pain, with P = 0.0002 in reducing stiffness and with P = 0.0013 in improving of ODI index.
| Discussion|| |
Of 36 cases of Katigraha males, prolong standing posture, moderate working lifestyle, labourers, and homemakers were affected more with Katigraha might be because they have to do more laborious work and prolong standing posture exerts pressure over low back and provides favorable condition for lodging (Sthana Samshraya) of already vitiated Vata Dosha. Age-wise distribution showed that 40–60 years of age group were found more prone to Katigraha because degenerative changes starts in this age group that leads to Vata vitiated disorders.
The effect of Avasthanusara treatment is better than Anavasthanusara treatment might be because:
- Pain is the symptom of Vata Dosha. Drugs used in Panchakoladi Upanaha were having Ushna (hot) and Tikshna (sharp) properties, so it did Doshavilayana (liquefaction of Dosha) and Srotoshodhana (purification of channels) which helped in relieving Margavarana (obstruction in channels) of Vata Dosha, followed by Godhumadi Upanaha that is having Snigdha (unctuous) property along with Ushna property, that helped in pacifying Vata Dosha, thus helped in relieving pain
- Stiffness is either due to Sheeta (cold) – Ruksha (dry) properties of Vata or Sheeta - Snigdha properties of Ama. Drugs used for Panchakoladi Upanaha are having Ushna, Ruksha and Tikshna properties which helped in pacifying Sheeta - Snigdha properties of Ama efficiently
- Avasthanusara treatment had a significant effect on reducing pain and stiffness both, thus it helped in improving quality of life of the patients. Although Anavasthanusara treatment group provided effect on reducing pain and stiffness, but as it is having Amaja stage of patients and were treated without considering stages, it was not effective statistically.
Probable mode of action of Upanaha
The lipoidal bond is suitable for penetration of drug molecule through stratum corneum. On this basis, it can be assumed that in Upanaha, oil helps in the formation of lipoidal bond with other drugs thus helps in the penetration of drug molecules. Upanaha is a type of Swedana, so it induces hyperthermia which improves local blood and lymphatic circulation and thereby improving local tissue metabolism. It reduces inflammation by modifying secretion of various inflammatory mediators, relaxes local musculature by physical effect of heat, increases the rate of transdermal drug delivery and thereby reduces pain.
The drugs used for Panchakoladi Upanaha are having alkaloids such as piperine (in Pippali), terpenoids (in Chavya), gingerol (in Shunthi), tannins, and saponins (in Yava), thus they inhibit prostaglandins (acting as a vasodilators and cause inflammation), which, in turn, may reduce the inflammation.
Drugs used in Panchakoladi Upanaha are Ushna, Tikshna in nature and due to its counter irritant effect, helped in relieving pain.
| Conclusion|| |
Patients of low back pain treated with Avasthanusara (stage wise treatment) had better effect in relieving pain, stiffness and in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) change than the patients treated with Anavasthanusara Upanaha Sweda without stage wise treatment. Also, patients of Samaja Katigraha treated with Panchakoladi Upanaha had better effect in relieving pain, stiffness and in ODI change than the patients of Samaja Katigraha treatedwith Godhumadi Upanaha. Thus, it can be concluded that Panchakoladi Upanaha was effective in relieving Samaja stage of Katigraha and Avasthanusara treatment is more effective in the management of Katigraha than that of Anavasthanusara treatment.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Brahmashankara M, editor. BhavaPrakash of Bhava Mishra. Ch. 26, Ver. 53. Part. 2. 12th
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2016. p. 292.
Rubin DI. Epidemiology and risk factors for spine pain. NeurolClin 2007;25:353-71.
Tiwari PV, editor. Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha: Sutra Sthana. Ch. 14, Ver. 22. 1st
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Vishvabharti; 2018. p. 255.
Tiwari PV, editor. Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha: Sutra Sthana. Ch. 14, Ver. 35-38.1st
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Vishvabharti; 2018. p. 258.
Krishna TK, editor. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta: Chikitsa Sthana. Part. 2. Ch. 32, Ver. 12. 1st
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2014. p. 495.
Lal GB, editor. Ashtanga Hridayam of Vagbhatta: Sutra Sthana. Part I. Ch. 17, Ver. 2-5. 6th
ed. Varanasi: ChaukhambhaOrientalia; 2013. p. 294-5.
Sharma S, editor. Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhatta: Sutra Sthana. Part. I. Ch. 26, Ver. 4. 3rd
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 2012. p. 196.
Acharya YT, editor. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta with Nibandha Sangraha commentary: Dalhana commentary: Chikitsa Sthana. Part. 2. Ch. 32, Ver. 22. 1st
ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Subharti; 2017. p. 514.
Namjoshi PV, Abhinav. Possible scientific reasons behind the supportive actions of Sthanika Snehana and Swedana. Pharma Sci Monit 2015;6:110-8.
Shirota H, Goto M, Katayama K. Application of adjuvant induced local hyperthermia for evaluation of anti-inflammatory drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1988;247:1158-63.
Brosseau L, Yonge KA, Robinson V, Marchand S, Judd M, Wells G, et al.
Thermotherapy for treatment of osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;4:CD004522.
Jun SB, Da HO, Hyun MC, Bong JS, Sung JL, Jung YK, et al.
Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1β-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models. Arthritis Research and Therapy 2009;11(2):R49.
Ved P. Terpenoids as source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2017;10(3):68-76.
S Iwakami, M Shibuya, F
Hanaoka, U Sankawa. Inhibition of Prostaglandin and Leukotriene Biosynthesis by Gingerols and Diarylheptanoids. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1992;40(2):387-91.
Koichi N, Yoshiaki D, Yoshitaka Y, Masanori H, Masayuki K, Kuniaki S, et al
. Tannin-fluoride Preparation Attenuates Prostaglandin E2 Production by Dental Pulp Cells. Molecular Medicine Reports 201;4(4):641-4.
Camila RA, Bernadete PS, Jose PP. A new steroidal saponin with antiinflammatory and antiulcerogenic properties from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum
Emanuela R, Garret AF. Prostaglandins and Inflammation. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2011;31:986-1000.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]