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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2020
Volume 41 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 209-261

Online since Friday, June 3, 2022

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Reformations- A need for Ayurveda education p. 209
Mandip Goyal
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Efficacy of Guggulu and Shallaki based Ksharasutra with Triphala Guggulu orally in the management of Bhagandara w.s.r. to fistula-in-ano: A open labelled randomized comparative clinical study p. 211
Aditya Nema, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Tukaram Dudhamal, Vyasdeva Mahanta
Background: Bhagandara is a disease of ano-rectal region and can be correlated with fistula-in-ano. Ksharasutra (application of medicated thread) is being practiced for ano-rectal disorders, particularly in Bhagandara. Guggulu-based Ksharasutra has shown good results in previous studies. Literatures and experiments of Shallaki showed anti-inflammatory, antifungal, analgesic, wound healing properties and Shallaki Niryasa (resin of Boswellia serrate Roxb.) is also having binding effect. Here, Shallaki-based Ksharasutra is used in comparison of Guggulu-based Ksharasutra with Triphala Guggulu orally for better outcome in the management of Bhagandara. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of Guggulu and Shallaki based Ksharasutra with Triphala Guggulu orally in the management of Bhagandara. Materials and methods: Total 46 patients were registered and randomly allocated by computer generated chart by into three groups. In group A (n = 15), Guggulu-based Ksharasutra was applied in fistula-in-ano without any oral medication; in group B (n = 16), Guggulu-based Ksharasutra was applied with Triphala Guggulu orally; and in group C (n = 15), Shallaki-based Ksharasutra was applied with Triphala Guggulu orally. Patients were assessed for pain, discharge, itching and swelling in the affected region and unit cutting time (UCT) of fistulous tract. Ksharasutra was changed by railroad technique on weekly based follow-up till complete healing of the tract occurred. Results: In group A, relief in pain, discharge, and swelling was found and was statistically highly significant while insignificant result was found in itching after cut through of the fistulous tract and the same results were found in group B (n = 14) and group C (n = 15). The mean UCT was higher in group A (8.94 days/cm) than in group C (8.43 days/cm) and in group B (8.59 days/cm). Conclusion: Shallaki based Ksharasutra is more effective in cutting of fistula track while Guggulu based Ksharasutra is more effective in pain relief in the treatment of Bhagandara, along with oral Triphala Guggulu as compared to Guggulu based Ksharasutra with and without Triphala Guggulu orally.
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Efficacy of Pandughni Vati & Punarnavadi Mandura Vati in the managment of Pandu w.s.r. iron deficiency anemia in children- An open labelled comparative clinical trial p. 218
VK Kori, KS Patel
Background: Anemia is a public health problem worldwide, and its prevalence in India is higher than any other south asian countries. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is having larger share out of all types of anaemia's. Symptomatology of IDA resembles with Kapha dominant variety of Pandu. Pandughni Vati (PV) and Punarnavadi Mandura (PM) Vati mentioned in Ayurveda are being used in clinical practice since long. Aim: To assess the efficacy of Pandughni Vati and compare its clinical efficacy with Punarnavadi Mandura Vati in the management of Pandu ws.r. iron deficiency anemia in children. Materials and methods: Present clinical study was a randomized trial for management of iron deficiency anemia aged 2–16 years. Out of total 91 patients enrolled, 60 completed the study and divided into two groups. In group A, Pandughni Vati (trial drug) and in group B, Punarnavadi Mandura Vati in the management of Pandu ws.r. iron deficiency anemia in children. (standard drug) were given to 30-30 patients respectively for a duration of 90 days in age specific doses. Patients were assessed by clinical signs and symptoms of Pandu and investigation parameters like complete blood count, serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) on baseline and after 90 days of treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out by Sigma Stat software. Results: On comparison, highly significant difference was found between two groups in subjective parameters such as Panduta (pallor), Daurbalya (weakness), Hriddrava (palpitation), Akshikuta Shotha (periorbital oedema), Pindikodweshtana (leg cramps) and Shwasa (breathlessness) whereas objective and saturation percentage except serum ferritin. Conclusion: The study revealed that, both the drugs; Pandughni Vati and Punarnavadi Mandura Vati were equally effective in the management of IDA so, it could be concluded that Pandughni Vati, can be used as mineral-free, safe, easily obtainable, palatable, cost-effective alternative drug of choice in alternative of Punarnavadi Mandura in iron deficiency anemia in children.
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Characterization and antimicrobial study of Trinakantamani (Amber) Pishti p. 225
Namrata Joshi, Meena Rani Ahuja, Gopal Krishan Rastogi, Manoj Kumar Dash
Background: Trinakantamani Pishti (TMP) is a cardio-tonic (Hridya), styptic (Rakta Stambhaka), astringent (Kashaya) formulation frequently used in varieties of bleeding disorders such as bloody diarrhea (Raktatisaara), Raktarsha (bleeding piles), and disorders of excessive menstruation (Atyartava). Still, no published data is available regarding its characterization. Aim: To generate a fingerprint for raw and processed TMP using sophisticated instrumental techniques to assess antimicrobial activity of TMP. Materials and methods: Three samples of TMP were prepared using the standard reference method. Characterization of TMP was carried out by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDEX) with scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Antibacterial activity was carried out by the well-diffusion method. Results: Analysis by scanning electron microscope revealed maximum particle size <5 μm and <3 μm in the raw sample and TMP, respectively. Minimum particle size in TMP ranges from 1 to 2 μm and 701 nm. EDEX analysis shows carbon and oxygen as major constituents while Na, Mg, Ca, Si, Fe, and S were present in traces. XRD pattern indicates the amorphous nature of the drug, while FTIR analysis reveals the presence of functional groups such as O–H, CO2, C = O, C-N, N–H. Heavy metals, total microbial count, and microbial limit test were found to be under permissible limits. Anti-microbial study against tested pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium did not show any effect of TMP. Conclusion: The results of EDEX study showed that Pishti samples have the small particle size i.e., 701nm than the raw i.e., 1-2 μm, which may facillitate absobtion of drug into the body. All heavy metals in the samples were within the permissible limit. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are the chief elements of drug which confirms similarity to the Amber, Since the present work is the first published literature on characterization and anti-microbial study on TMP, the outcome can be considered as fingerprint for the drug prepared using the mentioned reference method.
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Comparative pharmacognosy and phytochemical evaluation of leaf, root and stem of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Bakuchi) p. 235
Sarika Makwana, Nikhil Mehere, Prashant Bedarkar, Patgiri Biswajyoti, CR Harisha
Background: Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (P. Corylifolia L.), frequently familiar as Bakuchi in Samskrit, is an endangered and medicinally important plant. Its medicinal usage is reported in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the Chinese, British and the American Pharmacopoeia, and in different traditional systems of medicines such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. However, no scientifically pharmacognosy study has been reported on leaf, root, and stem part of P. Corylifolia L. Classics emphasized the use of leaf, root and stem of P. Corylifolia L. for on the management of dental carries, diarrhea, dysentery, etc., in the form of local application as well as internal administration. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate comparative pharmacognosy, phytochemical studies, and physicochemical analysis of leaf, root and stem of P. Corylifolia L. Materials and methods: Studies of leaf, root, stem, and their powder for phytochemical tests, histochemical tests, psoralen chemical test, and physicochemical analysis were performed by standard methods. Result: All the different parts of the plant exhibit oleoresin and other cellular contents, i.e., vessels fibers, lignified pitted vessels, etc., in pharmacognosy studies. In phytochemical study; observations indicate that coumarins, steroids, and flavonoids are present in leaf, stem, and root samples. Basified alcoholic extracts of powders of all test samples showed yellowish color of fluorescence at 366 nm whereas none of the samples showed any color at 254 nm during chemical test of psoralen. Conclusion: Pharmacognostical study on leaf, root and stem of Bakuchi (P. corylifolia L.) contributed Certain pharmacognostical parameters i.e; oleoresin, vascular bundles, parenchyma cells with rhomboidal crystals, pericyclic fibres etc parameters that will be applicable for authentication and identification of the parts of drug. There is a need to focus on the preliminary throughput phytochemical screening of plants for their probable use in therapeutics. As no published evidences are developed on comparative pharmacognosy and preliminary physicochemical analysis of leaf, root and stem of P. corylifolia L. plant, the results documented in the present study may be used as a standard in subsequent studies. These observations can be of use for further research studies.
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Phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic effects of Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agastya) – An edible medicinal plant p. 242
Saravanakumar Arthanari, Parthiban Periyasamy
Background: Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora/Agastya) is an edible Indian traditional medicinal plant widely used as dietary supplements and possesses various pharmacological activities. Aims: The aim is to evaluate aqueous ethanol extract of S. grandiflora leaves and flowers for its anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic effects using activated rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-T6. Material and methods: The antioxidant activities of these plant extracts were assessed as per the standard methods and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were examined by folin ciocalteu reagent and colorimetric methods respectively. The anti-proliferation assay was conducted by using a cyto X cell viability assay kit. The anti-fibrotic effect was investigated by measuring the hydroxyproline content and gene expression analysis of the two main fibrogenic cytokines in activated HSC-T6 cells: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Results: The aqueous ethanol extract of S. grandiflora leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings were well correlated with the total phenols and flavonoids contents. The aqueous ethanol extract of S. grandiflora leaf and flower significantly reduced the proliferation of activated HSC-T6 cells. Regarding the anti-fibrotic effect, the hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner during the extract treatment. In gene expression analysis, the treatment without extracts drastically up-regulated the fibrogenic cytokines (TGF-β and α-SMA), whereas the treatment with extracts significantly reduced these alterations. Conclusion: Results of present study revealed the significant antioxidant potential of the aqueous ethanol extract of S. grandiflora leaves and flowers. Among two extracts, S. grandiflora leaves demonstrated greater antioxidant, anti-fibrotic capacity with lower inhibiting concentrations corresponding to 50% values than S. grandiflora flowers.
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Central nervous system depressant activity of Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) rhizome p. 250
Kalpesh Panara, Mukeshkumar Nariya, Nishteswar Karra
Background: Sleep disorders have a comparatively high prevalence worldwide and create a burden on the health system. Pharmacological agents used for insomnia are associated with considerable side effects. Therefore, searching for safe and effective agents from plant-based natural sources is a worthy effort. Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) rhizome has been recommended for insomnia and mental conditions in the Indian system of medicine. Aim: This study aimed to determine central nervous system (CNS) depressant activity of Jatamansi (N. jatamansi) rhizome on experimental animals. Materials and methods: Gross behavior study and open field test (locomotor activity) were performed by using Charle's foster albino rats whereas rota-rod test and pentobarbital-induced sleep test in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into 3 groups (per model) having six animals in each group. The control group was treated with water, the standard group with diazepam and the test drug with powder of N. Jatamansi rhizome. Results were calculated by one-way ANOVA and post hoc test with P < 0.05 as significant. Results: Data suggested that Jatamansi did not produce a significant effect on the behavior of animals. It reduced the horizontal activity significantly (P < 0.001) in the open field apparatus. The test drug did not show a significant decrease in latency of fall-off time in rota-rod performance in mice. Still, it exerted a significant effect by a reduction in latency of onset of sleep (P < 0.01) and also extended the total duration of sleep (P < 0.05) in albino mice in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: This study shows that Jatamansi rhizome powder possesses CNS depressant activity without affecting gross behavior and muscle coordination in rats.
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Adaptogenic and immunomodulatory activity of Virgozest Avaleha – An ayurvedic proprietary formulation p. 255
Devang Y Joshi, Nidhi Ranpariya, Mukeshkumar B Nariya
Introduction: Rasayana (rejuvenator) or adaptogenic drugs have been proved to produce the complete potential to prevent diseases and degenerative changes that leads to diseases and promote longevity by providing strength and immunity. Virgozest Avaleha is a poly-herbal formulation claimed to serve as adaptogenic, and immunomodulatory, as a health tonic, enriched with dry fruits, and ingredients containing natural supplements of Vitamin E and proteins. Aim: To evaluate the adaptogenic activity and humoral immune activity of virgozest Avaleha in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: Virgozest Avaleha was evaluated for adaptogenic activity against swimming stress-induced changes and hypothermia in albino rats. The humoral immune activity of virgozest Avaleha was evaluated against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs)-induced response in albino rats with the inclusion of cyclophosphamide as immune suppressant agent. Results: In adaptogenic activity, virgozest Avaleha (450 and 900 mg/kg) exhibited an increase in physical activity, decrease in stress-induced hypothermia, and serum cortisol level when compared to the stress control group of albino rats. In humoral immune activity, virgozest Avaleha reversed the effects of cyclophosphamide-induced adverse changes on spleen and lymph node, and produced a significant increase in serum antibody titer in SRBCs-sensitized rats. Conclusion: The present study concluded that virgozest Avaleha has adaptogenic and humoral immune activity in Wistar albino rats, which may suggest the Rasayana like properties of Ayurvedic formulation.
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