Year : 2014 | Volume
: 35 | Issue : 3 | Page : 227--230
Practical applicability of Nyayas (Maxims) mentioned in Chakrapani Tika
Mahesh Kumar Vyas, Rambabu Dwivedi
Department of Basic Principles, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
Mahesh Kumar Vyas
Prof. and Head, Department of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T. and R.A. Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
The Nyayas - Maxims are of two types: (1) Loukika Nyaya and (2) Shastriya Nyaya. Loukika Nyayas are the one which are used by the common public in day today life whereas Shastriya Nyayas are the one which are used by the authors of the treatise to explore their concepts. Most commonly by using the meaning and gist of Loukika Nyaya, the Shastriya Nyayas were put forth by the Granthakaras. Moreover, notion of Nyaya depends upon the situation, place, and topic of explanation mainly. To explain the meaning of the topic, these Nyayas helped since Vaidika Kala. They teach hidden meaning correctly. As like Vedas, these Nyayas are also a part of other Shastras and so as in Ayurveda Shastra too. While explaining the Nidana, Chikitsa, etc., these Nyayas were utilized by the Acharyas of Ayurveda. To discern these Nyayas in their entirety at one place with examples is necessary for easy understanding of the Shastra. Here is an attempt to explore such Nyayas mentioned in Ayurveda for the benefit of easy understanding of the subject.
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Vyas MK, Dwivedi R. Practical applicability of Nyayas (Maxims) mentioned in Chakrapani Tika.AYU 2014;35:227-230
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Vyas MK, Dwivedi R. Practical applicability of Nyayas (Maxims) mentioned in Chakrapani Tika. AYU [serial online] 2014 [cited 2023 Jun 5 ];35:227-230
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Sanskrit has a tradition of Maxims, called Nyβya - (Nyaya), which capture a situation in life, usually with a nugget of words. A maxim is defined as "an expression of general truth or principle." They are specifically used when characterizing a situation. Nyayas usually take the form of a common occurrence or a story that can be applied as an aphorism to sum up an event, situation, or circumstance. These are used for many purposes like explanation of any difficult subject, to give examples, to clear the topic etc., Utilization of these maxims found since Vedic period and also in Puranas, Upanishads, Kavya, Nataka, Darshanas, and so on. Seers of Ayurveda too mentioned various maxims at necessary places. In Ayurveda, maxims were preferred to explain the below:
To understand the hidden concepts clearlyTo determine various diseasesFor differential diagnosis of the diseaseTo treat the diseaseTo administer different treatment modalities and to use various drugs in treatment.Thus, in a gist, these maxims help for doing research in various fields like literary, scientific, clinical, etc., The word Nyaya here does not meant for the Nyaya philosophy rather it denotes the one which explains the tradition, determination, logic, applicability, and technique of writing of any topic.
The Tacchilya, Tantrayukti, and Vadamarga help in detailed study and understanding of the matters of Shastra similarly Nyayas too help in easy understanding of the topics of the treatises. To explain the topic in brief, while writing their treatises, Ayurveda Acharyas incorporated these Nyayas. Some of the Nyayas mentioned are some of that of Tacchilyas, Tantrayuktis, etc., As like Anagatavekshana Tantrayukti, Anagatavekshana Nyaya also found. Siddhanta is one of the Vadamarga, Adhikarana Siddhanta is one of its type. We find the mentioning of Adhikarana Nyaya.
Brief History of Nyaya
0Explanation of Nyaya is found in Vedic period, continued in Purana, Upanishad, Kavya, Darshana, etc., Few such Nyayas along with their practical utility as per Ayurvedic point of view. ,,
While explaining the Arthapatti Pramana, Brihadaranyakopanishad explains "Dandapoopa Nyaya." A rat can even cut the Danda which is very hard then how it cannot cut the Apoopa which is very soft. This Nyaya can be incorporated in treatment aspect. A drug which can cure a chronic disease can definitely cure a mild oneMunjadisheekoddharana Nyaya is mentioned in Shathapatha Brahmana. It is mentioned while explaining the Moksha. Just like the layers of stick of Munja get detached, Atma too get detached from the external objects to attain ultimate salvationIn Ramayana, we find Ashoka Vanika Nyaya. Among the various forests, Ravana kept Seeta in Ashoka Vana. He could have kept her in the prison, but he chose the garden for no special reason and kept her there. Thus, whenever a specific reason is not found to occur a thing, this Nyaya is usedIn Mahabharata, we find Simhavalokana Nyaya. A lion after catching its food give a glance all around. Similarly, if the subject is glanced superficially not going to its depth, this Nyaya is utilized. It is like an abstract or the brief introduction of the topicIn Meemansa Darshana, we find Dehalideepanyaya. "Threshold" is known as Dehali in Sanskrit. When you place a lamp on a threshold, it sheds light both inside and outside. Similarly, when we achieve two results with a single task or activity, then this maxim can be quoted. For example: A drug may act as both Deepana and Pachana purpose. Balachaturbhadra Rasa can be indicated both in Jwara and AtisaraSthalipulaka Nyaya was explained in Patanjali Mahabhashya. By taking one of the grains from the cooking pot, we see whether all the grains are boiled or not; this is called Sthalipulaka Nyaya. While preparing the medicine, this Nyaya can be applied. By licking little of Avaleha, we find out whether it is prepared properly or notSankhyadarshana explains Pangvandha Nyaya while describing the Srushti UtpattiShakhachandra Nyaya is found in Taittariyabhashya Vartika. To explain one thing, the help of other thing is used. To show the moon which is far, the help of the branch of the tree is used and told that the moon is in between the branches. In Ayurveda, the Adhikarana Siddhanta serves the same purposeKamandaki Neetisara explains Sundopasunda Nyaya where two friends quarrel each other to get a thing which was liked by bothBhashapariccheda describes Kadambakoraka Nyaya and Veechitaranga Nyaya while explaining the sound and its transformationKupamanduka Nyaya is explained in Prasanna Raghava Nataka. One should not have the concise mind. Sushruta too quotes that studying of only one Shastra is not enough. We should also have the knowledge of allied sciences too for the better implementation of our science Giving caution regarding the bad things, Panchatantra explains Pankaprakshalana NyayaSuchi Kataha Nyaya is found in Saahityakoumudi, Kavyaprakasha, and Saptapadartha. It is described for suggesting of doing easy work first when both easy and difficult works are in front of us. When there are multiple jobs/activities to be completed, and priority is assigned to them based on the duration of each job this Nyaya is used.The Nyayas not only famous in the day to day life, but they also got a dignified position in Ayurveda - Chikitsa Granthas. The other Shastrakaras noted these Nyayas to beautify their Shastra whereas in Ayurveda Brihatrayi these are utilized as per Ayurvedic point of view. The Nyayas quoted here will help in exploring the Ayurvedic concepts. Later, on the commentators of these Brihatrayis used these Nyayas abundantly to explore the hidden meaning of the original verses and to understand the topic in an easier way. In the commentary of Sushruta Samhita, that is, Dalhanacharyakrita Nibandhasangraha and Gayadasacharya Krita Nyayachandrika, we find a lot of Nyayas mentioned. Even Vagbhatacharya in Ashtanga Hridaya and Sangraha quoted various Nyayas to establish various concepts.
Nyayas mentioned in Chakrapani Tika
Among the treatises of Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita got a noble place than others. It is due to its detailed description of both philosophical and medicinal concepts. A lot of commentaries on this treatise are found in which Ayurveda Dipika of Chakrapanidatta is considered to be more elaborative and descriptive. Chakrapani used various Nyayas to explore the meaning of the main verse of Charaka with proper understanding of it. Here is the explanation of some of the Nyayas mentioned by Chakrapani in the Sutra Sthana of Charaka Samhita.
Kakadanta Pareeksha Nyaya
It refers to finding of the teeth of the crow. Crow does not have the teeth. But still if we search for it, then it is of no use. Thus, whenever a work is done which is useless, not helpful for our self and also for society, this maxim is used. Doing the work whole day but at the end of the day if we feel it is of no use, at that time this Nyaya is utilized. Work with a definite aim is always praised. Ayurveda has a definite aim (Pravrutti) of attaining long and healthy life. This is the main reason of including all the factors related to human being and health in Ayurveda. Not even a single factor is explained without any particular aim. It can also be considered in the field of research. Initiation of any kind of research either clinical, literary or any other form should be for the benefit of a large group of the population. Otherwise, it is just like Kakadanta Pareeksha Nyaya. One has to administer the medicine which helps in curing that particular disease. Otherwise, it is of no use. 
Here, Ghuna refers to Keeda (insect) Vishesha/woodcutter. A woodcutter when cuts the wood there occurs some design/Akshara. Its main purpose is not to produce any design, or it does not know about the design, but due to Daivayoga it happens, and a beautiful design will be in front of us. This is called Ghunakshara Nyaya.  It is applicable, when a physician gives the treatment blindly without knowing the disease properly or the properties of the drug in detail, sometimes accidentally the disease gets cured. To fulfill the two main aims of Ayurveda, Oushadha (drug) plays an important role. Similarly, physician is also important as like drug. Both drug and physician are equally significant to cure or prevent disease. A physician who does not know about judicious use of the drug at that time, even that drug is having nectar like qualities is of no use. Any kind of drug and its action entirely depends upon the thoughtful utilization of the physician. He can convert a poisonous drug into medicinal drug by his attentive knowledge. This indicates the key role of a physician in the treatment field. But sometimes, a bad physician who has no knowledge regarding the judicious use of drugs when gives the treatment sometimes the disease may get cure. This is not because of the physician rather it is an accidental cure. Without any effort by that physician, there is a result. This is the Ghunakshara Nyaya.
Utsarga Apavada Nyaya
When a general rule is broken due to some special reason, this Nyaya is utilized.  Here, Utsarga means a general rule and Apavada denotes exception. For example, it is mentioned that in Kaphaja Roga, Swedana is indicated, but in Kaphaja Timira Roga there is an exception for this rule.
Shringa Grahika Nyaya
In a crowd of many cows, when it is necessary to denote a particular cow, by touching the horn of a cow we can denote it. This is called Shringa Grahika Nyaya.  Most of the diseases mentioned in Ayurveda are having much common signs and symptoms. At that time, we have to find out the special symptom which is helpful in the differential diagnosis. Thus, to mention the Pratyatma Lakshana of the disease or for the pinpoint explanation of the subject, this Nyaya is used. When we tell to do Pathyapalana in general, patient cannot understand what to do. But if we explain to take Shadangapaniya in Jwara it is the utilization of this Nyaya.
Bhuyasa Alpam Avajiyate Nyaya
The strong people will overpower the weak person; this is the meaning of this Nyaya. In Ayurveda, the relation of Deha Bala, Dosha Bala, and Oushadhi Bala will be explained by this Nyaya. When the strength of a person is less than the aggravated Doshas, they over power and produces disease in that person. Similarly, the Oushada, which we are administered to cure the disease, should overpower the Dosha. Otherwise, it would not have any effect on the disease. For example, when we administer Sneha, the Samyak Sneha Lakshana appears in some people on 3 rd day, in some on 5 th day while in some on 7 th day. This shows the strength of the aggravated Dosha either less or more. Thus, while explaining both Vyadhi Utpatti and Vyadhi Shamana this Nyaya is utilized.
When the given principles are implemented in half, this Nyaya is utilized. It is explained while mentioning the Anaditva and Nityatva of Ayurveda as it is not completely agreed by all.  Similarly, when we suggest the Pathyapathya of Ahara, Vihara, and Oushadha, if patient not follows it completely this Nyaya is applied.
Thus, we find a lot of Nyayas mentioned in the commentary of Chakrapani on Charaka Samhita. He used these Nyayas at each and every step of the treatise to explore the hidden meaning of the verse quoted by Charakacharya. Understanding of these Nyayas is very essential for the Ayurvedic scholars to for the better implementation of the concepts of Ayurveda practically. By the help of these Nyayas, one can get the knowledge of the concepts of Ayurveda, diseases, its diagnosis methods, differential diagnosis, how and when the medicines are used, etc., Proper understanding of this Nyayas will definitely help in a appropriate research work.
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