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   2018| April-June  | Volume 39 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 24, 2019

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Anti-dengue activity of Andrographis paniculata extracts and quantification of dengue viral inhibition by SYBR green reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Senthilraja Ramalingam, Sathiyamurthy Karupannan, Padmapriya Padmanaban, Senthilkumar Vijayan, Khallefathullah Sheriff, Gunasekaran Palani, K Kaveri Krishnasamy
April-June 2018, 39(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_144_17  PMID:30783363
Background: Dengue virus is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics. As many as 400 million people are infected yearly. Dengue is caused by any one of four related viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent infection with dengue virus and the most effective protective measures are those that avoid mosquito bites. When infected, early recognition and prompt supportive treatment can substantially lower the risk of medical complications and death. Nowadays, the search for natural plant products to fight against viral diseases has been increasing. Aims and Objective: To test the anti-dengu viral activity of both ethanolic & aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata. Materials and Methods: In vitro antiviral activity were performed against dengue virus by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and SYBR green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Cytotoxicity was also evaluated by MTT. The dengue viral load (VL) inhibition in plant extracts was characterized by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. Results and Discussion: In this study, the maximum nontoxic dose (MNTD) of A. paniculata plant was determined by testing the ethanolic extracts against Vero cells in vitro. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV 1–4-infected Vero cells with MNTD of A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT and RT-PCR, in which 55%–97% of cell viability were recorded in DENV-1–4-infected cells in different duration. Conclusion: Ethanolic extracts treated with dengue VLs also showed a significant changes which were reflected in RT PCR assay.
  20 6,430 792
Rasayana in perspective of the present scenario
Mandip Goyal
April-June 2018, 39(2):63-64
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_300_18  PMID:30783358
  6 5,117 818
Comparison between the effect of commercially available chemical teeth whitening paste and teeth whitening paste containing ingredients of herbal origin on human enamel
Chacko Kalliath, Archana Mukunda, Meera Pynadath, Vidya Venugopal, Jithin Prethweeraj
April-June 2018, 39(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_82_18  PMID:30783367
Background: Dentistry plays a crucial role in shaping the esthetics of a person and thus boosts the self-esteem of an individual. Whitening of the teeth is the most popular procedure where surface and deep stain removal whitens the teeth. Teeth whitening is achieved by professional application of chemicals and can also be self-administered by numerous products available. The most popular product is teeth whitening paste which is simple in application and easily available. Recently, teeth whitening tooth paste is commercially available where natural ingredients or their derivatives are used instead of chemicals for teeth whitening. Aims: To investigate and compare the effect of commercially available chemical teeth whitening toothpaste and teeth whitening toothpaste containing ingredients of herbal origin on human enamel (at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Royal Dental College, Kerala, India). Materials and Methods: An in vitro study with a duration of 14 days was conducted. Settings and Design: An in vitro study was conducted twenty samples were taken and assembled in to two groups of 10 each. Group A for teeth treated with conventional chemical toothpaste and group B for teeth treated with toothpaste containing ingredients of herbal origin. Premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose were checked for shade with Vita 3D shade guide and were observed under a stereomicroscope for surface morphology before the procedure. Each section was cleansed twice daily for 1 min with specified toothpaste and soft bristle toothbrush according to their groups and then cleansed with tap water and stored again in the same solution. After 14 days, the teeth were tested for the shade using vita 3D shade guide and surface morphology using stereomicroscope. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's unpaired t-test. Results and Conclusion: In this 14-day in vitro study, the chemical whitening toothpaste showed better whitening of teeth than toothpaste containing ingredient of herbal origin, whereas the surface irregularities was increased on the surface of the enamel with chemical whitening toothpaste when compared with toothpaste containing ingrtedients of herbal origin.
  4 6,532 753
Antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of organic crude fractions of Commelina paludosa
Thoufiqul Alam Riaz, Shahdat Hossain, Jannatul Ferdous, Mohammad Hossain, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Han-Jung Chae, Muhammad Kamal Hossain
April-June 2018, 39(2):101-106
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_213_17  PMID:30783365
Background: The herb, Commelina paludosa (CP) Blume (Family-Commelinaceae) is medicinally used by the traditional practitioners in Bangladesh. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence on this medicinal herb. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of CP (ethanol [ECP], chloroform [CCP] and n-hexane [NHCP] of whole-plant extracts). Materials and Methods: For this antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of crude extracts of CP were conducted by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, disc diffusion and serial dilution, castor oil-induced diarrhea and yeast powder-induced pyrexia methods respectively. Results and Observation: The results suggest that all the fractions significantly scavenged DPPH radicals. In the disc diffusion test, the zones of inhibition were observed within the range of 7 mm to 30.67 mm at 500 mg/disc. The highest zones of inhibition were observed by ECP, CCP and NHCP against Bacillus azotoformans, Lactobacillus coryifomis and Salmonella typhi respectively. NHCP was found to exert stronger antibacterial effect than the ECP and CCP. Conclusion: Minimum inhibitory concentrations were detected within the range of 31.25 and 250 μg/ml. Moreover, the crude fractions also showed significant (P < 0.05) antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities in Swiss mice. CP may be a good source of therapeutic components.
  3 3,191 265
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Bulbophyllum neilgherrense Wight. pseudobulb: A folklore plant
Vrinda Govindan Nair, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati, K Nishteswar, Vidhya Unnikrishnan, Mukesh B Nariya
April-June 2018, 39(2):76-80
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_134_16  PMID:30783361
Background: Bulbophyllum neilgherrense Wight. is an epiphytic orchid used extensively by the tribes of Karnataka in various diseases such as heart disease, leukoderma, skin allergy and rheumatism. It is used both internally and as an external application. In rheumatism, pseudobulbs chopped and boiled in coconut oil are applied externally. Aim: This study aims to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of B. neilgherrense Wight. pseudobulb powder in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Shade-dried pseudobulb were pulverized into fine powder. The analgesic activity of test drug was evaluated with tail-flick response and formalin-induced paw licking and anti-inflammatory activity with carrageenan-induced paw edema and formaldehyde-induced edema in Charles Foster albino rats. Statistically, the values were assessed with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's multiple t- test and Student's t-test for paired and unpaired data. Results: Administration of pseudobulb powder showed significant increase in tail-flick response at 30 min (51.75%), at 60 min (108.24%), 120 min (81.12%), and 180 min (23.84%). Test drug produced nonsignificant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h (37.25%) and 5 h (15.67%) compared to control group and did not produced any effect in formalin-induced edema. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the test drug has central analgesic activity against radiant heat-induced pain, moderate anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation.
  3 3,289 404
Simultaneous HPTLC analysis and in vitro antileishmanic activity of various secondary metabolites in extract of the traditional medicinal herb Artabotrys hexapetalus (L.f.)
Sakshi Bajaj, Sharad Ramesh Wakode, Washim Khan, Satish Manchanda, Sachin Kumar
April-June 2018, 39(2):92-100
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_158_17  PMID:30783364
Background: Artabotrys hexapetalus [(L.F) Bhandari] a medicinal plant is commonly known as 'Hari Champa' and its roots and fruits are used for treating malaria and scrofula, respectively. Objective: The aim of this work was to develop a sensitive, fast and reproducible high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous analysis of quercetin and apigenin in various extracts of Artabotrys hexapetalus (L. f.) Bhandari (Family Annonaceae) and further to assess antileishmanic effects of different extracts of A. hexapetalus against Leishmania donovani. Materials and Methods: Metabolic fingerprinting was developed using HPTLC with quantification of markers (quercetin and apigenin). The method was validated for linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness. Among the different combinations of mobile phases used, best separation was achieved in toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (6.5:3:0.5, v/v/v). Densitometric scanning of the plates directly at 254 nm was used for analysis of quercetin as well as apigenin. The concentration-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. Results: Compact bands for quercetin and apigenin were obtained at Rf0.52 ± 0.001 and 0.73 ± 0.002, linearity were found satisfactory for quercetin and apigenin. Linearity range for quercetin and apigenin were 100–1000 ng/spot and 100–2000 ng/spot, respectively, with r2 = 0.996 ± 0.002 and 0.993 ± 0.003, limit of detection (15.56 and 13.78 ng/spot), limit of quantification (51.8 and 45.94 ng/spot), recovery (98.7%–99.7% and 96.8%–98.8%) and precision with %RSD <2%. Various dried extracts were found to contain quercetin in the range of 0.35%–4.26% (w/w) and apigenin in the range of 0.64%–8.46% (w/w). Cytotoxicity assay of extracts over promastigotes showed that petroleum ether extract was found to be most cytotoxic (IC50 30.28 ± 1.06 μg/mL) after 96 h in comparison to other extracts. The finding of this study indicates that this plant is effective against L. donovani in vitro. Conclusion: The present HPTLC method is being reported for the first time and can be used for routine quality control. The petroleum ether extract of A. hexapetalus displayed potent antileishmanial activity and can be further explored for the development of antileishmanial treatment regimen.
  3 3,410 309
In vitro study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Varnya Mahakashaya Dashemani (aqueous extract): A polyherbal formulation
Sapna Narasanagi, Marula Siddaswamy Mallikarjunaiah Kuppur, M Shreevathsa, Sunil Kumar Ramesh Channarayapatna, Kini Ramachandra Kukkundur, N Geetha
April-June 2018, 39(2):81-86
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_225_16  PMID:30783362
Background: Plants used in Varnya Mahakashaya Dashemani (VMD) formulation were investigated individually by many scientists. Most of them have exhibited antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities when they have been extracted with the different solvents. Here, an attempt has been made to analyze these activities in aqueous extract of the whole formulation. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of polyherbal formulation VMD. Material and Methods: Phytochemical constituents of VMD extract were analyzed using standardized protocols and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for functional groups. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. The in vitro antioxidant properties of VMD aqueous extract was screened by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Anti-inflammatory potency was evaluated with inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). Results: Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponin and phenols. The total phenolic content of VMD extract was 50 μg/ml of gallic acid equivalent and the total flavonoids content was 90 μg/ml Quercetin equivalent. It showed higher free radicals quenching capacity with an IC50 value of 34.20 ± 3.03 μg/ml for DPPH and ferric reducing ability by FRAP with an equivalent value of 560 μM (Fe++)/g extract. Significant inhibition of 15-LOX enzyme was prominent with increasing concentration of the sample with an IC50 of 33.62 ± 5.8 μg/ml. Conclusion: VMD has high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory potential and further studies can lead to identification and isolation of more potent therapeutic bioactive compounds from this extract.
  2 4,386 422
Hypolipidemic effect of Rukshana Upakrama in the management of dyslipidemia – A case study
Bhavana Patel, Shubhangi B Kamble, Hitesh A Vyas, Mahesh K Vyas, Rajkumar Chinthala
April-June 2018, 39(2):72-75
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_88_17  PMID:30783360
An elevated total or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is defined as dyslipidemia which is an important risk factor for coronary artery diseases (CADs) and strokes. It is estimated that abnormal cholesterol levels in the blood lead to cause about 18% of cardio vascular diseases (CVDs) and 56% of the ischemic heart diseases at global level. In comparison with others, South Asians have the highest incidence rate of CADs. Acharya Charaka has mentioned Rukshana Upakrama (a type of management which induces dryness) as one amongst the Shad-Upakrama (six principles of management) and can be considered as the best for the reduction of increased Kapha Dosha, Meda Dhatu (adipose tissue) and their related morbid factors. A 42-year-old female patient visited the OPD of the department of Basic Principles, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar, Gujarat, with the complaints of weight gain, heaviness in the body and lethargy. After investigation, she was diagnosed as a case of dyslipidemia due to abnormality in cholesterol levels. She was treated with Takra-Siddha Yavagu (gruel prepared with buttermilk) and Udvartana (dry powder massage) for 30 days. After completion of treatment, hematological investigations revealed that her serum cholesterol level was decreased to 147 mg/dl from 223 mg/dl and serum LDL was reduced to 91 mg/dl from 153 mg/dl. Her weight also reduced to 82 kgs from 88 kgs. Hence, it can be concluded that Rukshana Upakrama in the form of Takra-Siddha Yavagu and Udvartana is effective in the management of dyslipidemia for normalization of lipid in the blood as it possesses Shoshana (absorption) and Kapha-Medohara (alleviation of vitiated Kapha and Meda) properties.
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Letter to editor: Management of hypothyroidism by Triphaladya Guggulu along with Punarnavadi decoction
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
April-June 2018, 39(2):118-118
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_290_18  PMID:30783368
  - 2,619 298
A clinical evaluation of Kanchanara Guggulu and Bala Taila Matra Basti in the management of Mutraghata with special reference to benign prostatic hyperplasia
Gajiram Dharamdas Banothe, Vyasdeva Mahanta, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Tukaram S Dudhamal
April-June 2018, 39(2):65-71
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_117_15  PMID:30783359
Background: Mutraghata a disease of Mutravaha Srotasa (urinary system) described in Ayurveda, closely resembles with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) of the modern medicine. It affects man above the age of 40 years. Conservative management with hormonal therapy, open prostatectomy and TURP are the options available in modern medicine. In Ayurveda, the drugs having Vata Kapha pacifying action, Shothahara (anti-inflammatory) and Mutrala (diuretic) are recommended for its management. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu orally and Bala Taila Matra Basti in the management of Mutraghata (BPH). Materials and Methods: A total of 32 selected patients were divided into two groups. In group A, Bala Taila 60 ml, Matra Basti, once a day, was administered just before breakfast for 21 days. In group B, Bala Taila (60 ml), Matra Basti, once a day, was administered just before breakfast for 21 days and Kanchanara Guggulu Vati 1g (2 tab, 500mg each) three times a day, orally with lukewarm water was administered for 21 days. Findings were recorded in research proforma at weekly interval and patients were followed up till 1 month. Results: In group A, the maximum improvement was seen in 3 patients (25.00%), moderate improvement was seen in 8 patients (66.67%) and mild improvement was observed in 1 patient (8.34%). Similarly, in group B, the maximum improvement was found in 10 patients (55.56%), moderate improvement in 7 patients (38.89%) and mild improvement in 1 patient (5.56%) only. None of the patients got complete remission or remained unchanged in either of the groups. Significant reduction was observed in postvoidal residual urine volume and the size of the prostate in both the groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that Matra Basti along with Kanchanara Guggulu orally showed Mutraghata comparatively better symptomatic relief as compared to Matra Basti alone in cases of Mutraghata (BPH).
  - 12,782 614
Acute toxicity and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study of metriviv syrup in female rats
Amit G Patel, Mukeshkumar B Nariya, Subrata De
April-June 2018, 39(2):107-112
DOI:10.4103/ayu.AYU_18_18  PMID:30783366
Introduction: Metriviv syrup is a poly-herbal formulation used as uterine tonic and for treating gynecological ailments such as infertility, leucorrhea, and menstrual disorders. There is no scientific data on the safety of this formulation available, therefore, its detail toxicity study in female albino rats was conducted. Aims and Objective: Acute toxicity and repeated dose 28 days oral toxicity study of metriviv syrup in female rats. Material and Methods: In oral acute toxicity study, syrup metriviv was administered orally once only at the dose of 2000mg/kg in rats in a sequential manner. For repeated dose toxicity study, Metriviv syrup was administered orally for 28 consecutive days in albino rats at three dose levels, i.e., TED, TEDx5 and TEDx10 dose levels (1.35, 0.75, 13.5 ml/kg, twice a day respectively). Results and Observation: Results of acute toxicity study showed that drug did not produce any behavioral changes, signs of toxicity and mortality up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study, Metriviv did not produce any signs of toxicity and changes in behavioral parameters. Metriviv did not affect cellular as well as non-cellular elements of the blood to significant extent. Serum biochemical profile and histological study clearly indicated that the test formulation is not likely to produce any serious changes at lower dose level while produced mild-to-moderate changes at TEDx10 dose level and same was reverted in recovery study after discontinuation of the drug. Conclusion: The study concluded that metriviv syrup is safe to administer up to dose of 2000 mg/kg in female rats during acute toxicity. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study, test drug at TEDx10 has only mild-to-moderate adverse potential for liver and kidney while did not have any major toxic effects at therapeutic dose level in female albino rats.
  - 4,263 391